Glossary of Chemistry semester exam

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chemical reaction
the cahnge of one or more substances
chemical property
a property that can be observed only when there is a change in the substance
the science that investigates and explains the structure and properties of matter
covalent bond
the attraction of two atoms for a shared pair of electrons
a regular, repeating arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules in three dimensons
a substance that takes up enough water from the air that it dissolves completely to a liquid solution
the method of separating substances in a mixture by evaporation of a liquid and subsequent condensation of its vapor
any compound that conducts electricity when metlted or dissolved in water
negatively charged particle
electron cloud
the space around the nucleus of an atom where the atom's electrons are found
electron configuration
the most stable arrangement of electons in sublevels and orbitals
a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
chemical reaction that absorbs
the capacity to do work
energy level
the regions of space in which electrons can move about the nucleus of an atom
chemical reaction that gives off energy
a flowing compressible substance with no definite volume or shape
any element from group 17
a compound which there is a specific ration of water to ionic compound
a subatance that absorbs water molecules from the air to become a hydrate
a substance that absorbs water molecules from the air to become a hydrate
a prediction that can be tested to explain observations
inner tranistion element
one of the elements in the two tows of elements below the main body of the periodic table: the lanthinides and the actinides
inorganic compound
a compound that does not contain carbon
covalent compound
a compound whose atoms are held together by covalent bonds
the elements in a vertical column of the periodic table
term describing a compound that does not dissolve in liquid
a chemical combination of two or more different elements joined together in a fixed proportion
a combination of chemical symbols that show what elements make up a compound and the number of atoms of each element
an atom or group of combined atoms that has a charge because of the loss or gain of electrons
ionic bond
the strong attractive force between ions of opposite charge
ionic compound
a compound comprised of ions
any of two or more atoms of an element that are chemically alike but hace different masses
the SI unit of energy
kelvin (K)
a division of the Kelvin scale; the SI unit of temperature
one of the first series of inner transition elements with atomic numbers 58 to 71
law of conservation of mass
in a chemical change, matter is neither created nor destroyed
law of definite proportions
the principle that the elements that comprise a compund are always in a certain proportion by mass
lewis dot diagram
a diagram where dots or other small symbols are placed around the cheimical symbol of an element to illustrate its valence electrons
the measure of the amount of matter an object contains
mass number
the sum of the neutrons and protons in the nucleus of an atom
anything that takes up space and has mass
an element that has luster, conducts heat and electricity and usually bends without breaking
a combination of two or more substances in which thw basic of identity of each substance is not changed
molar mass
the mass of one mole of a pure substance
the unit used to count numbers of atoms, molecules, or formula units of substances
molecular mass
the mass in atomic mass units of one molecule of a covalent compound
an uncharged group of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
a subatomic particle with a mass equal to a proton but no electrical charge
noble gas
any element from group 18 that has a full compliment of valence electrons and as such is non reactive
noble gas configuration
a state of an element achieved by having the same valence electron configuration as a noble gas atom; the most stable confuguration
an element that in general does not conduct electricty, is a poor conductor of heat, and is brittle at room temperature. Many are gases at room temperature
octet rule
the model of chemical stability that states that atoms become stable by having 8 electrons in their outer energy level execept for some of the smallest atoms, which only have 2 electrons
the space in which there is a high probability of finding an electron
organic compound
a compound that contains carbon; few exceptions exsist
a reaction in which an element loses electrons
oxidation number
the charge on an ion or an element; can be positive or negative
pascal (Pa)
the SI unit for measuring pressure
a horizontal row in the periodic table
periodic law
the statement that the physical and chemical properties of an element repeat in a regular pattern when they are arranged in order of increasing atomic number
the tendency to reoccur at regualar intervals
physical change
a change in matter where its identity does not change
physical property
a charateristic of matter that is exhibited without a change in identity
polyatomic ion
an ion that consists of 2 or more different elements
the characteristics of matter, how it behaves
a positively charged subatomic particle
an observation made without measurement
an observation made with measurement
scientific law
a fact of nature that is observed so often that it is accepted as the truth
an element that does not conduct electricity as well as a metal but that does conduct slightly better than a nonmetal
term describing a substance that dissolves in a liquid
the substance that is being dissolved when making a solution
a mixture that is the same throughout, or heterogenus
the substance that dissolves the solute when making a solution
the study of relationships between measurable quantities, such as mass and volume, and the number of atoms in a chemical reaction
the small energy divisons given in a energy level
matter with the same fixed compostion and properties
an explanation based on many observations and supported by the results of many experiments
transition element
any of the elements in group three through group twelve of the periodic table, all of which are metals
valence electron
an electron in the outermost energy level of an atom
description of a substance that easily changes to a gas at room temperature
akali metal
any element from group 1
akali earth metal
any element from group 2
any of two or more molecules of a single element that have different crystalline ir molecular structures
a solid solution containing different metals, and sometimes nonmetallic substances
a negative ion
aqueous solution
a solution in which the solvent is water
the smallest particle of a given type of matter
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of an element
atomiv theory
the idea that matter is made up of fundamental particles called atoms
atomic theory
the idea that matter is made up of fundamental particles called atoms
Avogadro constant
the number of things in one mole of a substance, specifically 6.02x10²³
Avogadro's priciple
a statement that at the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of gases contain equal numbers of particles
binary compound
a compound that contains only 2 elements
boiling point
the temperature of a liquid where its vapor pressure equals the pressure exerted on the surface
Internation system of units
SI length unit
meter (m)
SI mass unit
kilogram (kg)
SI time unit
second (s)
SI temperature unit
kelvin (K)
SI unit of the amount of substance
mole (mol)
SI unit of electric current
ampere (A)
SI unit of luminous intensity
candela (cd)
SI unit of area
SI unit of volume
SI unity of mass density
SI unit of energy
joule (J)
SI unit of pressure
pascal (P)
SI unit of Electric potential
volt (V)
Metric unit of volume
liter (L)
Metric unit of temperature
Celcius (C°)
metric unit of energy
calorie (cal)
Numerical value:1,000,000,000
Expressed in scientific notation: 1x10^9
Symbol: M
Numerical value: 1,000,000
Expressed in scientific notation: 1x10^6
Symbol: k
Numerical value: 1,000
Expressed in scientific notation:1x10^3
Symbol: d
Meaning: tenth
Numerical value: 0.1
Expressed in scientific notation: 1x10^-1
Symbol: c
Numerical value:0.01
Expressed in scientific notation: 1x10^-2
Numerical value: 0.001
Expressed in scientific notation: 1x10^-6
Symbol: backwards u and l conjoined
Meaning: millionth
Numerical value: 0.000001
Expressed in scientific notation: 1x10^-6
Meaning: billionth
Numerical value: 0.000 000 001
Expressed in scientific notation: 1x10^-9
Symbol: p
Meaning: trillionth
Numerical value: 0.000 000 000 001
Expressed in scientific notation: 1x10^-12
how close the measurement is to the accepted value
the repeatablitiy of a measurement
Celcius to kelvins
add 273
kelvins to Celcius
subtract 273
Farenheight to Celcius
subtract 32
Celsius to Fahrenheit
add 32

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