Glossary of Chemistry ch 12

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a substance that can flow and therefore take the shape of the container
suface tension
a foce that tends to pull adjacent parts of a liquid's surface together, thereby decreasing surface area to the smallest possible size
capillary action
the attraction of the surface of a liquif to the surface of a solid
the process by which particles escape from the surface of a nonboiling liquid and enter the gas state
the physical change of a liquid to a solid by removal of heat (solidification)
crystalline solids
solids consisting of crystals
a substance in which the particles are arranged in an orderly, geometic, repeating pattern
amorphous solid
one in which the particles are arranged randomly
the physical change of a solid to a liquid by the addition of heat
melting point
the temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid
supercooled liquids
substances that retain certain liquid properties even at temperatures at which they appear to be solid
crystal structure
the 3-d arrangement of particles of a crystal
unit cell
the smallest portion of a crystal lattice that shows the 3-d pattern of the entire lattice
a dynamic condition in which two opposing changes occur at equal rates in a closed system
any part of a system that has uniform composition and properties
the process by which a gas changes to a liquid
equilibrium vapor pressure
the pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with its corresponding liquid at a given temp.
volatile liquids
liquids that evaporate readily
the conversion of a liquid to a vapor within the liquid as well as its surface. it occurs when the equilibrium vapor pressure of the liquid equals the atmospheric pressure
the boiling point
the temperature at which the equilibrium vapor pressure of the liwuid equals the atmospheric pressure
molar heat of vaporization
the amount of heat energy needed to vaporize one mole of liquid at its boiling point
freezing point
the temperature at which the solid and liquif are in equilibrium at 1 atm pressure
molar heat of fusion
the amount of heat energy required to melt one mole of solid at its melting point
the change of state from a solid directly to a gas
the change of state from a gas directly to a solid
phase diagram
a graph of pressure versus temp. that shows the conditions under which the phases of a substance exist
triple point
indicates the temp and pressure condtions at which the solid, liquid, and vapor of the substance can coexist at equilibrium
critical point
indicates the critical temp and critical pressure
the critical temperature
the temperature above which the substance cannot exist in the liquid state
the critical pressure
the lowest pressure at which the substand can exist as a liquid at the critical temp. the --- of water is 217.75atm

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