## Glossary of Chemistry Vocab Chap. 2 and Nuclear

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- alpha particle
- two protons and two neutrons bound together and emitted from

the nucleus during some kinds of radioactive decay

- beta particle
- an electron emitted from the nucleus during some kinds of

radioactive decay

- daughter nuclide
- a nuclide produced by the decay of a parent nuclide

- decay series
- a series of radioactive nuclides produced by successive radioactive decay until a stable nuclide is reached

- electron capture
- the process in which an inner orbital electron is captured by

the nucleus of its own atom

- nuclear fission
- a process in which a very heavy nucleus splits into more-stable

nuclei of intermediate mass

- nuclear fusion
- the combining of light-mass nuclei to form a heavier, more

stable nucleus

- hypothesis
- a testable statement

- scientific method
- a logical approach to solving problems by observing and

collecting data, formulating hypotheses, testing hypotheses, and formulating

theories that are supported by data

- system
- a specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been

selected for study during an experiment or observation

- theory
- a broad generalization that explains a body of facts or phenomena

- model
- an explanation of how phenomena occur and how data or events are

related

- conversion factor
- a ratio derived from the equality between two different units

that can be used to convert from one unit to the other

- derived unit
- a unit that is a combination of SI base units

- SI
- (Le Système International d’Unités) the measurement system accepted

worldwide

- weight
- a measure of the gravitational pull on matter

- density
- the ratio of mass to volume or mass divided by volume

- quantity
- something that has magnitude, size, or amount

- volume
- the amount of space occupied by an object

- accuracy
- the closeness of measurements to the correct or accepted value of the

quantity measured

- directly proportional
- two quantities that give a constant value when one is divided

by the other

- indirectly proportional
- two quantities that have a constant mathematical

product

- precision
- the closeness of a set of measurements of the same quantity made in

the same way

- significant figure
- any digit in a measurement that is known with certainty plus

one final digit, which is somewhat uncertain or is estimated

- percent error
- a value calculated by subtracting the experimental value from the

accepted value, dividing the difference by the accepted value, and then

multiplying by 100

- scientific notation
- numbers written in the form M ×10n where the factor M is a

number greater than or equal to 1 but less than 10 and n is a whole number