Glossary of Chemistry The Easy Way: Chapter One (Vocab)

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Aufbau Principle
Principle stating that an electron occupies the lowest energy orbital that can receive it.
covalent radius
Used to describe the size of an atom for nonmetals. To measure, divide the distance of the nuclei of two covalently bonded atoms by two.
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
When a gas is made up of a mixture of different gases, the pressure of the mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the components.
The numerical expression of the relative strength with which the atoms of an element attract valence electrons to themselves; the higher the number, the greater the attraction.
Group or Family
a vertical column of elements in the periodic table that generally have similar properties.
Hund's Rule
The rule that after an electon occupies the lowest energy orbital that can receive it, pairing will occur with the addition of one more electron to each orbital.
the scientist given credit for the first periodic table.
metallic atoms
tend to lend electrons
english scientist who first determined the atomic numbers of the elements through the use of x-rays.
nonmetallic atoms
tend to gain electrons
Pauli Exclusion Principle
each electron orbital of an atom can be filled by only two electrons, each with an opposite spin
periodic law
the chemical properties of elements vary periodically with their atomic numbers
transition elements
elements involved with the filling of a d sublevel with electrons after two electrons are in the s sublevel of the next principal energy level.

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