Glossary of Chemistry Test II Trimester I

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What is the Quantum Mechanical Model?
It explains the properties of atoms by treating the electron as a wave and quantizing its energy.
What is Heisenburg's Uncertainty Principle?
The position and momentum of a moving object cannot simoultaneously be measured and known exactly.
What are Matter Waves?
Wavelike behavior of Particles
What is the Dual Nature of Energy?
Light has the properties of both particles and waves.
What is Planck's Theory?
Energy emitted or absorbed by any object is restricted to quanta of particular sizes.
What is the Photoelectric Effect?
Shows that light in the form of a photon can collide with an electron.
What is a photon?
Quanta of energy that behave like tiny particles.
Why does radioactive decay occur?
The original nucleus of an atom decomposes or decays to form a new nucleus, releasing radiation in the process.
What are the four properties of waves?
Frequency, Amplitude, Speed, Wavelength
What did Democritus do for Chemistry?
He originated the idea of the atom.
What did Dalton do for Chemistry?
He developed the Atomic Theory of Matter.
What is the Atomic Theory of Matter?
An element is made up of atoms
Atoms of a given element are identical
Atoms of different elements are different
Atoms are neither created or destroyed
a given compound has the same relative numbers and types of atoms.
What did Thomson contribute to Chemistry?
He discovered the electron using a cathode ray tube.
What did Franklin contribute to Chemistry?
Observed electricity. Said an object can have one of two kinds of electric charge (positive or negative).
What did Bequerel contribute to Chemistry?
He worked with radioactive pitchblende.
What did the Curies contribute to Chemistry?
They discovered Polonium, Radium.
What did Rutherford Contribute to Chemistry?
1. Atom is mostly empty space
2. Atom contains a small, dense nucleus
What did Chadwick contribute to Chemistry?
He discovered the neutron.
What are protons?
They have a positive charge, are located in the nucleus, and are "glued" together by neutrons.
What are neutrons?
They have no charge, and are located in the nucleus.
What are electrons?
They have a negative charge, and are located in the empty space of an atom.
What is an Ion?
Charged atoms (an un-equal number of electrons and protons).
What is a cation?
Represented by a plus sign. Is when you lose electrons.
What is an anion?
Represented by a minus sign. Is when you gain electrons.
What is an isotope?
Atoms with a different number of protons and neutrons (There CAN be a charge).
What is amu?
The mass of both a single proton and a neutron is 1 amu.
What is the strong nuclear force?
When neutrons glue protons together in the nucleus.
What is the Zone of Stability?
Elements with atomic numbers between 1 and 20 have stable nuclei with nearly equal amounts of protons and neutrons.
What is electron denstiy?
The density of an electron cloud.
What are atomic orbitals?
A region in space where an electron with a particular energy is likely to be found.

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