Glossary of Chemistry Study for Brittany

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Define the word "reactants"
The starting materials in a chemical reaction
Define "products"
The new materials produced
Define "word equation"
Using the names of chemical reactants and products instead of models
Name the 4 types of Chemical Reactions
Synthesis reactions, Decomposition reactions, Single displacement, Double displacement
What is a "Synthesis reaction"
Involves joining atoms to make a molecule, or joining elements to form a compound
What is a "decomposition reaction"?
Involves separating molecules to make atoms, or splitting compounds to form elements.
What is "single displacement"?
A chemical reaction where an element reacts with a compound. The element replaces one of the compound's elements and in doing so, creates a new compound
What is "double displacement"?
A chemical reaction where elements in different compounds replace each other
Define "combustion"
Reactions involve the burning of a chemical substance in oxygen
Metals burn in oxygen to produce _____?
A metal oxide

magnesium + oxygen = magnesium oxide
Non-metals burn in oxygen to produce ____?
A dioxide

carbon + oxygen = carbon dioxide
Name two "hydrocarbons"
Butane and propane
Hydrocarbons burn in oxygen to produce ________?
Carbon dioxide and water

hydrocarbon fuel + oxygen = carbon dioxide and water
What is the "Law of Conservation of Mass"?
The mass of the reactants is equal to the mass of the products
What does the "Law of Conservation of Mass" mean?
The mass was not lost during the chemical reaction, and the resulting chemical equation is balanced
Define "electrolyte"
A substance that dissolves in water, producing a solution that is able to conduct electricity
In what TWO ways do you recognize a binary ionic compound?
#1 only 2 elements are present

#2 metal and non-metal
How do you name a binary ionic compound?
Name the metal first, ie. magnesium

Name the non-metal, adding ad "ide" at the end, ie. oxide

= magnesium oxide
How do you write a formula for a binary ionic compound?
Use the cross over method

Determine the charge on each ion

Write both ions with their charge
How do you recognize a polyatmoic ionic compound?
A metal and a polyatomic ion are present

(only exception is ammonium ion)
How do you name a polyatomic ionic compound?
Name the metal first

Then name the polyatomic ion
How do you write a formula for a ployatomic ionic compound?
Write the ions with their charges (remember to treat the atom as a package)

Determine the charge on each ion

Write both ions with their charge

Use the crossover method

Reduce the coefficients to their lowest denomination
How do you recognize a binary molecular compound?
Only contains two elements

Two non-metals
How do you name a binary molecular compound?
Name the element that is found furthest LEFT on the periodic table first

If both elements are in the same group, name the element furthest down

Then name the other element with an "ide" ending

Add a prefix to the beginning of each element to indicate the ratio of atoms

2 --> di
6 --> hexa

= diphosphorus hexachloride
How do you write a formula for a binary molecular compound?
The prefix tells you how many of each atom we have per compound
How do you write the name of a compound containing a TRANSITION METAL?
Write the name the same way you would for a binary ionic compound or a polyatomic compound depending on which type of compound you have

Put the charge of the "transition metal" ion in brackets beside it
How do you write the formula for a compound containing a transition metal?
In the name, you are given the charge of the metal

You aready know the charge of the main element

Use crossover method!
Define "concentration"
The amount of a substance in a given volume
How does "concentration" affect "reaction rate"?
The greater number of reactant particles of a substance, the greater the chance that the particles will bump into each other. Therefore, the reaction rate increases.
Define "surface area"
The amount of area of a chemical that is visible and able to react, ie the surface area of a whole orange is the outer peel
How does "surface area" affect "reaction rate"?
The higher the surface area, the faster the reaction rate, because the available surface for a chemical reaction increases
How can you increase surface area?
By decreasing the sizes of the pieces of the reactant
Define "temperature"
Refers to the average speed of particles. When you increase the temperature of a substance, you increase the speed with which the particles are moving.
How does "temperature" affect "reaction rate"?
As molecules move faster at a higher temperate, they encounter and collide with more molecules thus increasing reaction rate.
Define a "catalyst"
A substance that speeds up the rate of a reaction without being used up in the reaction. The catalyst decreases the amount of energy that is needed to break the bonds
What are "enzymes"?
Specialized proteins that speed up reactions of living cells
How does a "catalyst" affection "reaction rates"?
The energy required for the reaction to occur decreases and therefore more reactions will occur
Define "acid"
A sour-tasting compound that produces hydrogen ions when it dissolves in water
Define "balanced chemical equation"
An equation in which there are equal numbers of atoms for each element on both sides
Define "base"
A bitter tasting, slippery feeling compound that produces hydroxide ions when it dissolves in water
Define "exothermic"
A physical or chemical change that results in the release of energy
Define "indicator"
A chemical that changes colour in response to changes in pH
Define "neutralization"
The reaction between an acid and a base, which results in a salt and water
Define "pH scale"
A scale that measures the relative acidity or alkalinity of a substance

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