Glossary of Chemistry One

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Contains two or more elements
Substance that does the dissolving
Its solution conducts electricity poorly
Weak electrolyte
Its solution conducts electricity well
Strong electrolyte
Produces H in a solution
Arrhenius Acid
Smallest unit of matter which retains all its properties
Systematic categorization of elements
Periodic Table
Science that studies matter and the changes it undergoes
Equals the number of protons and electrons in an atom
Atomic Number
Has a charge of +1
Has a charge of -1
Electron(s) gained
Electron(s) lost
Mass per unit volume
Sum of the atomic masses in an ionic compound
Formula Mass
Sum of protons and neutrons in an atom
Atomic Mass
Matter neither created nor destroyed
Law of Conservation of Mass
Substance that is dissolved
Measure of solution concentration
Sum of the atomic masses in a molecular compound
Molecular Mass
U and H
State Functions
Measured charge of the electron(person)
R milliken
Explained the photoelectric effect (person)
A Einstein
Demonstrated that atomic nuclei are dense and located in teh center of an atom (person)
E Rutherford
His wave equation forms the foundation for modern theories of atomic and molecular orbitals (person)
E Schroedinger
Mathematically demonstrated that you'll never be absolutely sure where an electron is in an atom at any given time (person)
W Heisenberg
Spins would rather not be paired if possible (person)
F Hund
Founded the principle that no electron in an atom can have the same value for all 4 quantum numbers (person)
W Pauli
Developed the initial quantized model of the H atom (person)
N Bohr
Demonstrated that electrons in atoms have quantized spin (person)
O Stern and W Gerlach
Explained teh relationship between energy and frequency of a photon (person)
M Planck
Distance between the nuclei of two adjacent atoms in a covalent compound
Bond Length
Temp where the vapor pressure equals the prevailing atmospheric pressure
Boiling Point
The temp and pressure above which a substance cannot be liquefied
Critical temp and pressure
Share a pair of electrons equally
Nonpolar Bond
Share a pair of electrons unequally
Polar Bond
Measures the ability of an atom to attract electrons to itself
Bond formed between 2 atoms in which 1 atom donates both electrons to the bond
Coordinate Covalent Bond
Net attractive electrostatic forces that hold anions and cations together in a solid
Ionic Bond
Bond between two atoms in which each atom donates one electron to the bond
Covalent Bond
Covalent bond formed by parallel orbital overlap
Pi Bond
Covalent bond formed by end-to-end overlap
Sigma Bond
Blending of two or more atomic orbitals to new energetically equivalent orbitals with optimized geometry
Hybrid Orbitals
Describes the 3-D geometry of a molecule, including the lone pair electrons
Molecular geometry
Partial pressure exerted by a liquids vapor in dynamic equilibrium with the liquid at constant temp
vapor pressure
Amount of work required to extend the surface area of a liquid
Surface tension
Temp where the vapor pressure equals 1 ATM
Normal Boiling Point
Temp at which a solid converts to a liquid
Melting Point
A special type of molecular interation between a H atom in a polar bond and an electronegative O, N or F atom
Hydrogen Bond
Amount of energy required to convert a mole of a substance from the solid to the liquid state at the same temp
Enthalpy of Fusion
amount of energy required to convert a mole of a substance from the liquid to the vapor state at the same temp
Enthalpy of Vaporization
matter and the changes that it undergoes
Science of Chemistry
Quantity of energy required to break 1 mole of covalent bonds between 2 atoms in the gas phase
Bond dissociation Energy
Distance between teh nuclei of two adjacent atoms in a covalent compound
Bond Length
Indicates whether a chemical bond is a single, double or triple bond
Bond Order
An application of Hess's Law to ionic solids used to calculate crystal lattice energies
Born-Haber Cycle
Bond formed between 2 atoms in which 1 atomdonates bothe electrons to the bond
Coordinate Covalent Bond
Major factor that makes ionic compound formation energetically favorable
Crystal Lattice Energy
Mutual repulsion among electron groups leading to a certain orientation of those groups depending on the number of groups involved
Electron Group Geometry
Difference between the number of valence electrons in the free atom and the number of calence electrons assigned when bonded to another atom in a lewis structure
Formal Charge
Combination of lewis symbols that represents covalent bond formation between the various atoms in a molecule
Lewis Structures
Atoms tend to acquire teh electron configurations of noble gasses in ionic and covalent compounds
Octet Rule
Two or more plausible Lewis structures for the same compound differing only in the distribution of the electrons
Resonance Structures
Covalent Bond formed by end-to-end orbital overlap
Sigma bond

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