Glossary of Chemistry Midterm Review

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Separates mixtures based on density
heat of fusion
the amt energy required to melt a substance and the amt energy released when substance freezed
heat of vaporization
the amt energy required to vaporize liquid at its boiling point or condense it
solid to gas

What phase has the most entropy?

Does entropy change when solid to a solution?


a solution has more entropy than its solid counterpart
Ex: NaCl(s) to NaCl (aq)
When do liquids boil?
when vapor pressure of liquid is equal to atmospheric pressure
Ideal Gases (7)

What kind of gases behave most ideally?
-particles travel in random, straight-line motion
-particles have no attractive forces
-no change in energy during collisions
-volume doesn't matter
-high temp
-low pressure

smaller molecule gases
Kelvin conversion
273 + C = K
1 mole of any gas at STP
22.4 L
What is the relation between weight of a gas and the rate of diffusion?
Lighter gases (fewer moles) diffuse faster
said atom is a solid sphere
said atoms have pos/neg particles randomly arranged
Rutherford (3)
Gold Foil Experiment: shot postive alpha particles at gold foil, most went through

-protons in a small nucleus
-electrons outside nucleus
-most of an atom empty space
Electrons in concentric rings
Electrons found in orbital clouds according to this model (3 names)
Wave Mechanical
Quantum Mechanical
How much do protons, neutrons, and electrons weigh?
proton- 1 a.m.u.
neutron-1 a.m.u.
electron- 0 or 1/1836 of a proton
What is the charge of the nucleus?
What owns all of the mass of an atom?
What is the nuclear charge of an atom?
the atomic #, the # protons
diff # neutrons, diff mass # (sum of protons+neutrons)
atomic mass
weighted average of naturally occuring isotopes
spectral line patterns
unique pattern of bright lines representing specific wavelengths
-no two elements have same pattern
-caused by excited electrons move from higher energy level to ground state
artificial tran wsmutation
changing one element into another (look for 2 reactants in nuclear equation)
An elements is stable if...
fission vs. fusion
fission: splitting large nucleus which releases energy (bang element w/ neutron)

fusion: joing small nuclei in to large nuclei which releases energy (H+H)
Forming vs. breaking bonds
Forming: exothermic, releases energy, elements more stable

Breaking: endothermic, absorbs energy, elements less stable
Ionic Bonds
transfer of electrons from one element to another resulting in ions being formed
Covalent Bonds

(polar vs. nonpolar)
sharing electrons between 2 nonmetals, form molecules

Nonpolar: even electron sharing between 2 identical nonmetals (diatomic)

Polar:2 diff nonmetals bonded share electrons unevenly
Metallic bonds
metals bonded

"positive nuclei emmersed in a sea of mobile electrons"
-explains why metals conduct e- well
-conduct heat well
-are malleable and ductile
London Dispersion Forces
weakest attraction between nonpolar, symmetrical shaped molecules and the noble gases

(larger and molecules that are closer together increase attraction)
Dipole-Dipole Attraction

(strongest kind)
stronger attraction than LDF between 2 polar shaped molecules

Hydrogen Bonding: strongest dipole attraction between H (+) and N, O, and F (- elements w/ highest electronegativity)
What explains the high boiling pt. of water?
Hydrogen Bonding

Water molecules are so attracted to eachother it is hard to separate them
Molecule-ion attraction

(What does this explain)
strongest intermolecular attraction, between polar shaped molecule and ion

Explains how NaCl dissolves in H2O: positive H attracted to negative Cl, positive Na attracted to negative O
binary compound vs. ternary compound
compound of 2 elements

compound of 2 element
Which gas has more molecules?

How many moles in Ne at 273 K, 2 atm, and 22.4 L?
22.4 L at 1 atm or 22.4 L at 2 atm

2 moles
Uranium-238 and Lead-206
used for mineral dating
Technetium-99 (Tc)
tumor tracer
thyroid cancer radiation
Carbon-14 and Carbon-12
fossil dating
When do you have to use Kelvin?
Combined gas law
Calculate the weighted average of Carbon 13 and Carbon 12. 73% is Carbon 13 and 27% is Carbon 12
Complete the equation
___ --> 0 60
-1 e + 28 Ni
27 Co
Lewis Dots for Ca, C, and N

x C x

x N x
How many sigfigs?





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