Glossary of Chemistry Midterm Review
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- Separates mixtures based on density
- heat of fusion
- the amt energy required to melt a substance and the amt energy released when substance freezed
- heat of vaporization
- the amt energy required to vaporize liquid at its boiling point or condense it
- solid to gas
What phase has the most entropy?
Does entropy change when solid to a solution?
a solution has more entropy than its solid counterpart
Ex: NaCl(s) to NaCl (aq)
- When do liquids boil?
- when vapor pressure of liquid is equal to atmospheric pressure
- Ideal Gases (7)
What kind of gases behave most ideally?
- -particles travel in random, straight-line motion
-particles have no attractive forces
-no change in energy during collisions
-volume doesn't matter
smaller molecule gases
- Kelvin conversion
- 273 + C = K
- 1 mole of any gas at STP
- 22.4 L
- What is the relation between weight of a gas and the rate of diffusion?
- Lighter gases (fewer moles) diffuse faster
- said atom is a solid sphere
- said atoms have pos/neg particles randomly arranged
- Rutherford (3)
- Gold Foil Experiment: shot postive alpha particles at gold foil, most went through
-protons in a small nucleus
-electrons outside nucleus
-most of an atom empty space
- Electrons in concentric rings
- Electrons found in orbital clouds according to this model (3 names)
- Wave Mechanical
- How much do protons, neutrons, and electrons weigh?
- proton- 1 a.m.u.
electron- 0 or 1/1836 of a proton
- What is the charge of the nucleus?
- What owns all of the mass of an atom?
- What is the nuclear charge of an atom?
- the atomic #, the # protons
- diff # neutrons, diff mass # (sum of protons+neutrons)
- atomic mass
- weighted average of naturally occuring isotopes
- spectral line patterns
- unique pattern of bright lines representing specific wavelengths
-no two elements have same pattern
-caused by excited electrons move from higher energy level to ground state
- artificial tran wsmutation
- changing one element into another (look for 2 reactants in nuclear equation)
- An elements is stable if...
- fission vs. fusion
- fission: splitting large nucleus which releases energy (bang element w/ neutron)
fusion: joing small nuclei in to large nuclei which releases energy (H+H)
- Forming vs. breaking bonds
- Forming: exothermic, releases energy, elements more stable
Breaking: endothermic, absorbs energy, elements less stable
- Ionic Bonds
- transfer of electrons from one element to another resulting in ions being formed
- Covalent Bonds
(polar vs. nonpolar)
- sharing electrons between 2 nonmetals, form molecules
Nonpolar: even electron sharing between 2 identical nonmetals (diatomic)
Polar:2 diff nonmetals bonded share electrons unevenly
- Metallic bonds
- metals bonded
"positive nuclei emmersed in a sea of mobile electrons"
-explains why metals conduct e- well
-conduct heat well
-are malleable and ductile
- London Dispersion Forces
- weakest attraction between nonpolar, symmetrical shaped molecules and the noble gases
(larger and molecules that are closer together increase attraction)
- Dipole-Dipole Attraction
- stronger attraction than LDF between 2 polar shaped molecules
Hydrogen Bonding: strongest dipole attraction between H (+) and N, O, and F (- elements w/ highest electronegativity)
- What explains the high boiling pt. of water?
- Hydrogen Bonding
Water molecules are so attracted to eachother it is hard to separate them
- Molecule-ion attraction
(What does this explain)
- strongest intermolecular attraction, between polar shaped molecule and ion
Explains how NaCl dissolves in H2O: positive H attracted to negative Cl, positive Na attracted to negative O
- binary compound vs. ternary compound
- compound of 2 elements
compound of 2 element
- Which gas has more molecules?
How many moles in Ne at 273 K, 2 atm, and 22.4 L?
- 22.4 L at 1 atm or 22.4 L at 2 atm
- Uranium-238 and Lead-206
- used for mineral dating
- Technetium-99 (Tc)
- tumor tracer
- thyroid cancer radiation
- Carbon-14 and Carbon-12
- fossil dating
- When do you have to use Kelvin?
- Combined gas law
- Calculate the weighted average of Carbon 13 and Carbon 12. 73% is Carbon 13 and 27% is Carbon 12
- Complete the equation
___ --> 0 60
-1 e + 28 Ni
- Lewis Dots for Ca, C, and N
x C x
x N x
- How many sigfigs?
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