Glossary of Chemistry Mid Term Review
Other Decks By This User
- a substance that can't be broken down into simpler chemical substances
- the smallest particle of an element that has the characteristics of that element
- the positively charged center of an atom composed of protons, neutrons, and is surrounded by a cloud of electrons.
- atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons.
- a substance that is composed of atoms of two or more different elements that are chemically combined.
- covalent bond
- the force that holds two atoms together when they share electrons.
- a group of atoms held together by covalent bonds and have no overall charge.
- ionic bond
- the attractive force between two ions of the opposite charge.
- a charged particle.
- all of the chemical reations that occur within an organism.
- a combination of substances in which the individual components retain their own properties.
- a homogeneous mixture in which one or more substances are distributed evenly in another substance; particles are so small that they can't be seen with out a microscope. Example: saltwater
- any substance that forms hydrogen ions in water.
- any substance that forms hydroxide ions in water.
- polar molecule
- a molecule with an unequal distribution of charge; each molecule has a positive end and a negative end.
- heterogeneous mixture
- has different materials that are spread out unevenly.
- a heterogeneous mixture whose particles never settle and are large enough to scatter light.
- a liquid heterogeneous mixture in which visible particles settle.
- homogeneous mixture
- has substances that are uniformly spread out.
- chemical formula
- tells what elements make up a compound and the ratios of the atoms of those elements.
- a number in a chemical formula written after a chemical symbol that tells how many atoms of an element are in a unit of the compound.
- chemically stable
- a condition of an atom when its outer energy level is completely filled with electrons.
- chemical bond
- a condition in which a force holds together the atoms in a substance.
- nonpolar molecule
- a molecule with an equal sharing of electrons.
- hydrogen bond
- weak chemical bond formed by the attraction of positively charged hydrogen atoms to other negatively charged atoms.
- the net movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
- dynamic equilibrium
- result of diffusion where there is continuous movement of particles but no overall change in concentration.
- compounds that have the same simple formula but different three-dimensional structures.
- a large molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together.
- an organic compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with a ratio of about two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom for every carbon atom.
- organic compounds that have a large proportion of Carbon-Hydrogen bonds and less oxygen than carbohydrates.
- a large, complex polymer composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually sulfur.
- amino acids
- the basic building blocks of proteins. They are linked together when an -H from one amino acid and an -OH group from another amino acid are removed to form a water molecule. There are 20 common amino acids.
- peptide bond
- the covalent bond formed between the amino acids.
- type of protein found in all living things that increases the rate of chemical reactions.
- nucleic acid
- a complex macromolecule that stores cellular information in the form of a code.
- subunits of nucleic acid formed from a simple sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogen base.
- a substance which speeds up a chemical reaction.
- the substance upon which thean enzyme acts.
- organic vs. inorganic
- organic substances are carbon based. Inorganic substances are not carbon based.
- major elements: Carbon,Hydrogen,Oxygen
Functions: food storage, form cell walls of plants.
- major elements: C, H, O, N, and usually S.
structure:made up of amino acids
Functions: provide structure for organs, help carry out metabolism, contract muscles, and transports blood.
- Nucleic Acids
- Major Elements: C, H, O, N and P
Structure: made up of nucleotides
Functions: stores cellular information in code, and code for making every protein.
- The splitting of a compound into fragments by the addition of water
- a chemical reaction in which two or more molecules, or monomers, combine to form larger molecules, or polymers
- a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers
- any of a variety of carbohydrates that contain two monosaccharide molecules
- A type of carbohydrate that contains sugar molecules that are chemically linked together.
- a sugar that does not hydrolyse to give other sugars;it is the simplest group of carbohydrates
- A compound that contains more than two or more amino acids, when hydrolyzed.
- saturated (fats)
- having all available valence bonds filled
- unsaturated (fats)
- when a compound contains atoms that share more than one valence bond.
- Carboxyl group and amino group.
- (COOH)and (NH2) are found in amino acids.
- Model of amino group, carboxyl group and R group.
H- C- COOH
- Glycine model
O H -C- H H
\ | /
/ | |
H--O H H
- anything that has mass and takes up space
- amount of matter an object contains
- Examples of Physical Change
- melting, freezing, boiling, dissolving, condensing,change in state.
- Examples of Chemical Changes
- burning, rotting, rusting, decomposing, fermenting, exploding, corroding.
- Law of Conservation of Mass
- states that in any physical change or chemical reaction, mass is neither created nor destroyed; it is conserved.
- a measure of how close a measurement comes to the actual or true value of whatever is measured
- a measure of how close a series of measurements are to one another
- Dalton's Atomic Theory
- 1)All elements are composed of atoms
2)atoms of the same element are identical.
3)atoms can mix together or can chemically combine n whole-number ratios to form compounds
4)chemical reactions occur when atoms are separated, joined, or rearranged.
- atomic mass unit (amu)
- 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom.
- any atom or group of atoms with a positive charge. Tend to be formed by metallic elements
- any atom or group of atoms that have a negative charge. Tend to be formed by nonmetallic elements
- molecular compound
- *compounds composed of molecules
*formed by nonmetallic compounds
*low melting point
- Ionic Compound
- *compound composed of cations and anions
*formed with metallic combined with nonmetallic elements
*high melting point
- diatomic elements
"New Hampshire Is Full Of Clean Brooks"
- Hydrogen, Fluorine, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine
- formula unit
- the lowest whole-number ratio of ions in a compound
- Law of Definite Proportions
- states that in any chemical compound, the masses of the elements are always in the same proportions.
- Law of Multiple Proportions
- states whenever two elements form more than one compound, the different masses of one element that combine with the same mass of the other element are in a ratio of small whole numbers.
- binary compounds
- compunds composed of two elements
- 6.02X10^23 representative particles of a substance
- molar mass
- the mass(in grams) of one mole of a substance
- electron configuration
- 1s^2,2s^2,2p^6,3s^2,3p^6 3d^10
- Aufbau principle
- electrons fill the lowest energy level first
- Pauli exclusion principle
- any can have at the most two electrons
- Hund's rule
- electrons fill orbitals single file first, then pair up
- octet rule
- atoms gain or lose an electron so that they will have eight valace electrons to be stable
You must Login or Register to add cards