Glossary of Chemistry Mid Term Review

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a substance that can't be broken down into simpler chemical substances
the smallest particle of an element that has the characteristics of that element
the positively charged center of an atom composed of protons, neutrons, and is surrounded by a cloud of electrons.
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons.
a substance that is composed of atoms of two or more different elements that are chemically combined.
covalent bond
the force that holds two atoms together when they share electrons.
a group of atoms held together by covalent bonds and have no overall charge.
ionic bond
the attractive force between two ions of the opposite charge.
a charged particle.
all of the chemical reations that occur within an organism.
a combination of substances in which the individual components retain their own properties.
a homogeneous mixture in which one or more substances are distributed evenly in another substance; particles are so small that they can't be seen with out a microscope. Example: saltwater
any substance that forms hydrogen ions in water.
any substance that forms hydroxide ions in water.
polar molecule
a molecule with an unequal distribution of charge; each molecule has a positive end and a negative end.
heterogeneous mixture
has different materials that are spread out unevenly.
a heterogeneous mixture whose particles never settle and are large enough to scatter light.
a liquid heterogeneous mixture in which visible particles settle.
homogeneous mixture
has substances that are uniformly spread out.
chemical formula
tells what elements make up a compound and the ratios of the atoms of those elements.
a number in a chemical formula written after a chemical symbol that tells how many atoms of an element are in a unit of the compound.
chemically stable
a condition of an atom when its outer energy level is completely filled with electrons.
chemical bond
a condition in which a force holds together the atoms in a substance.
nonpolar molecule
a molecule with an equal sharing of electrons.
hydrogen bond
weak chemical bond formed by the attraction of positively charged hydrogen atoms to other negatively charged atoms.
the net movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
dynamic equilibrium
result of diffusion where there is continuous movement of particles but no overall change in concentration.
compounds that have the same simple formula but different three-dimensional structures.
a large molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together.
an organic compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with a ratio of about two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom for every carbon atom.
organic compounds that have a large proportion of Carbon-Hydrogen bonds and less oxygen than carbohydrates.
a large, complex polymer composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually sulfur.
amino acids
the basic building blocks of proteins. They are linked together when an -H from one amino acid and an -OH group from another amino acid are removed to form a water molecule. There are 20 common amino acids.
peptide bond
the covalent bond formed between the amino acids.
type of protein found in all living things that increases the rate of chemical reactions.
nucleic acid
a complex macromolecule that stores cellular information in the form of a code.
subunits of nucleic acid formed from a simple sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogen base.
a substance which speeds up a chemical reaction.
the substance upon which thean enzyme acts.
organic vs. inorganic
organic substances are carbon based. Inorganic substances are not carbon based.
major elements: Carbon,Hydrogen,Oxygen

Functions: food storage, form cell walls of plants.
major elements: C, H, O, N, and usually S.

structure:made up of amino acids

Functions: provide structure for organs, help carry out metabolism, contract muscles, and transports blood.
Nucleic Acids
Major Elements: C, H, O, N and P

Structure: made up of nucleotides

Functions: stores cellular information in code, and code for making every protein.
The splitting of a compound into fragments by the addition of water
a chemical reaction in which two or more molecules, or monomers, combine to form larger molecules, or polymers
a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers
any of a variety of carbohydrates that contain two monosaccharide molecules
A type of carbohydrate that contains sugar molecules that are chemically linked together.
a sugar that does not hydrolyse to give other sugars;it is the simplest group of carbohydrates
A compound that contains more than two or more amino acids, when hydrolyzed.
saturated (fats)
having all available valence bonds filled
unsaturated (fats)
when a compound contains atoms that share more than one valence bond.
Carboxyl group and amino group.
(COOH)and (NH2) are found in amino acids.
Model of amino group, carboxyl group and R group.
Glycine model
O H -C- H H
\ | /
C----------C----- N
/ | |
H--O H H
anything that has mass and takes up space
amount of matter an object contains
Examples of Physical Change
melting, freezing, boiling, dissolving, condensing,change in state.
Examples of Chemical Changes
burning, rotting, rusting, decomposing, fermenting, exploding, corroding.
Law of Conservation of Mass
states that in any physical change or chemical reaction, mass is neither created nor destroyed; it is conserved.
a measure of how close a measurement comes to the actual or true value of whatever is measured
a measure of how close a series of measurements are to one another
Dalton's Atomic Theory
1)All elements are composed of atoms
2)atoms of the same element are identical.
3)atoms can mix together or can chemically combine n whole-number ratios to form compounds
4)chemical reactions occur when atoms are separated, joined, or rearranged.
atomic mass unit (amu)
1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom.
any atom or group of atoms with a positive charge. Tend to be formed by metallic elements
any atom or group of atoms that have a negative charge. Tend to be formed by nonmetallic elements
molecular compound
*compounds composed of molecules
*formed by nonmetallic compounds
*low melting point
Ionic Compound
*compound composed of cations and anions
*formed with metallic combined with nonmetallic elements
*high melting point
diatomic elements
"New Hampshire Is Full Of Clean Brooks"
Hydrogen, Fluorine, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine
formula unit
the lowest whole-number ratio of ions in a compound
Law of Definite Proportions
states that in any chemical compound, the masses of the elements are always in the same proportions.
Law of Multiple Proportions
states whenever two elements form more than one compound, the different masses of one element that combine with the same mass of the other element are in a ratio of small whole numbers.
binary compounds
compunds composed of two elements
6.02X10^23 representative particles of a substance
molar mass
the mass(in grams) of one mole of a substance
electron configuration
1s^2,2s^2,2p^6,3s^2,3p^6 3d^10
Aufbau principle
electrons fill the lowest energy level first
Pauli exclusion principle
any can have at the most two electrons
Hund's rule
electrons fill orbitals single file first, then pair up
octet rule
atoms gain or lose an electron so that they will have eight valace electrons to be stable

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