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Glossary of Chemistry Formulas

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Speed of light
3.0*10^8 m/s
Planck's constant
6.626*10^-34 J*s
Density
d=m/V
Combined Gas Law
P1*V1/T1 = P2*V2/T2
Ideal Gas Law
P*V = n*R*T
Freezing Point Depression
^Tf = -Kf*m*n
Boiling Point Elevation
^Tb = Kb*m*n
Rate Law
rate = k*[A]^x*[B]^y
Keq for aA + bB <=> cC + dD
([C]^c*[D]^d)/([A]^a*[B]^b)
Keq >/= 1
more products than reactants
(lies to the right)
Keq </= 1
more reactants than products
(lies to the left)
Le Chatelier's Principle: general
if you do something to disturb a system at equilibrium, the system will react by trying to undo the change that was made
Le Chatelier's Principle: concentration
if you add a reactant or product, the equilibrium will shift in the opposite direction
if you remove a reactant or product, the equilibrium will shift in the same direction
Le Chatelier's Principle: temperature
if you increase the temperature, the equilibrium will shift in the endothermic direction
if you decrease the temperature, the equilibrium will shift in the exothermic direction
Le Chatelier's Principle: pressure and volume (gases only)
if you increase pressure (and decrease volume), the equilibrium will shift to the side with fewer gas molecules
if you decrease pressure (and increase volume), the equilibrium will shift to the side with more gas molecules
pH
power of Hydrogen
1-->14 (acidic-->basic)
-log[H3O+]
pOH
power of Hydroxide
1-->14 (basic-->acidic)
-log[OH-]
pH + pOH
14
HA + H2O <=> A + H3O-
Ka
([H3O+][HA])/([HA])
absolute zero
0 K, -273.15* C
B + H2O <=> BH+ + OH-
Kb
([BH+][OH-])/([B])

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