Glossary of Chemistry Exam Review 2

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one of two or more different molecular forms of an element in the same physical state
an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure
the conversion of a solid to a gas or vapor without passing through the liquid state
the quantity of heat that raises the temperature of 1 g. of pure water 1 degree C
the capacity for doing work; it exists in several forms, including chemical, nuclear, electrical, radiant, mechanical, and thermal energies
the height of a wave from the origin to the crest
(v) the number of wave cycles that pass a given point per unit of time; there is an inverse relationship between the frequency and wavelength of a wave
a quantum of ligh; a discrete bundle of electromagnetic energy that behaves as a particle
the distance between two adjacent crests of a wave
the converstion of a liquid to a gas or a vapor
boiling point
the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is just equal to the external pressure on the liquid
triple point
the point on a phase diagram that represents the only set of conditions at which all three phases esist in equilibrium with one another
a substance in which the atoms, ions, or molecules are arranges in an orderly, repeating, three-dimensional pattern called a crystal lattice
unit cell
the smallest group of particles within a crystal that retains the geometric shape of the crystal
the amount of energy needed to move an electron from its present energy level to the next higher one
What is the first part of the kinetic theory of gases?
Gas is composed of small particles with no attractive/repulsive forces between them
What is the second part of the kinetic theory of gases?
Particles move in constance, random motion
What is the third part of the kinetic theory of gases?
All collisions are perfectly elastic (no energy is lost)
SI unit for pressure
pascal (Pa)
SI unit for Temperature
Kelvin (K)
SI unit for frequency
Hertz (Hz)
Endothermic reaction
absorbs heat
Exothermic reaction
gives off heat
Dalton's model of the atom
Solid indivisible mass
Thomson's model of the atom
"plum pudding" mode; electrons stuck into mass of positive charge
Rutherford's model of the atom
nuclear mode; atom mostly empty space, with small positive charge in center
Bohr's model of the atom
Planetary mode; electrons found in energy levels around nucleus
Quantum mechanical model of the atom
1. Modern description of electrons
2. No exact path of electrons around nucleus; estimates probability of finding electron in certain position
Avogadro's hypothesis
Equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of particles
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
We cannot know 1. position or 2. velocity of particle at the same time
Photoelectric effect
Metals eject electrons when light shines on them

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