Glossary of Chemistry Exam 2

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Limiting reactant
The substance that controls the quantity of the product that can be formed in a chemical reaction
Mass Number
Total number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus
Define: Atom
The smallest unit of matter. Greek meaning "invisible"
Substance that is a starting material before a chemical change
Define Avogadro's Principle
Equal volumes of gases at room temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of particles
Define Charles' Law
Relationship between volume of a gas and its temperature; Jacques Charles
Particles made up of more than one atom
Significant Digit
Those digits that are certain in a measurement plus the last digit, which is pressumed to be uncertain
Particle of an atom with no charge "neutral"
Define Boyle's Law
System used to measure the volume of gas as the pressure of the gas changes.
Abbreviation for Standard temperature and pressure
Chemical Reaction
Movement of atoms in matter, combining or breaking apart to produce new kinds of matter.
Matter that has been broken down by chemical means into more than one element. "To put with"
Standard pressure
Average pressure of air at sea level
SI unit to measure pressure
Law of conservation of mass
Principle stating that mass is neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions.
Diatomic Element
Element with molecules made of two atoms.
Octet Rule
Rule based on the assumption that atoms form bonds to achieve a noble gas electron configuration.
Ratio between the mass and the volume of a substance
Study of the amount of substances produced and consumed in chemical reactions
A place empty of matter
Term that indicates heat is released in a chemical reaction
Measure of heat; the average kindetic energy of particles
Substance that takes the shape of and fills its container
Group 7A of the periodic table.
Define Avogadro's Number
6.02x10^23 Unit used for counting atoms. Named after Italian scientist.
Covalent Bond
Nonionic chemical bond formed by shared electrons
Elementary particle with negative electric charge.
Compound only containing hydrogen and carbon atoms
Ideal Gas
Amount of gas, volume, temperature, and pressure.
Particle that has an electric charge
Atoms of the same element that contain different numbers of neutrons, and having different atomic masses.
Unit of measurement in the Kelvin scale; William Thomson, Lord Kelvin
Kinetic Energy
Energy of an object because of its motion
Valence Electrons
Electrons in the outermost orbitals; often involved in chemical bonding
Amount of a substance that contains 6.02x10^23 particles.
Noble Gas
Nonmetal element not generally combinable with other elements
Family of elements on the periodic table with closely related properties
Force exerted over a given area
New substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction.
Potential Energy
Energy that an object has because of it's position

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