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Glossary of Chemistry Chapter 4 11.22.05

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Excited State
State in which an electron has a higher energy than it normally should
Orbital
Three-Dimensional space around the nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron of certain energy
Photon
Quantum of energy
Frequency
Number of waves that pass a given point in a specific time
N
Tells the energy level of the electron
M
Tells which orbital in a set of orbitals
S
Tells the spin of the electron
Quantum
Minimum quantity of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom
Noble- Gas Configuration
An outer main energy level fully occupied
Inner Shell Electrons
Elecrons that are not in the highest occupied energy level
Quantum Theory
Describes mathematically the wave properties of electrons
Electromagnetic Radiation
Form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior
Ground State
Lowest energy state of an electron
Photoelectric Effect
Emission of electrons from a metal when light shines on the metal
Wavelength
Distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves
L
Tells which type of orbital
Aufbau Principle
An electron occupies the lowest energy orbital that can receive it
Pauli Exclusion Principle
No two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers
Hund's Rule
Orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron
Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle
It is impossible to determine simultaneously both the postion and velocity of an electron at the same time
Number of Orbitals
S
1
Number of Orbitals
P
3
Number of Orbitals
D
5
Number of Orbitals
F
7
Electrons per Orbital
S
2
Electrons per Orbital
P
6
Electrons per Orbital
D
10
Electrons per Orbital
F
14
Electrons per Level
1 st Level
2
Electrons per Level
2 nd Level
8
Electrons per Level
3 rd Level
18
Electrons per Level
4 th Level
32
Shape of S
Sphere
Shape of P
Pear
Shape of D
Double Pear
Shape of F
Fancy

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