## Glossary of Chemistry Chapter 1 and 2 2

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- mixed substances
- a blend of two or more pure substances

- Examples of mixed substances
- Ex. air made up of mostly N2 and O2, gas, salt water, soup milk.

The substances that make up a mixture are called constituents.

- Telling a mixture from an element or compound
- Elements or compounds have 1 set of properties. Mixures retain the properties of each of its consituents.

- Examples of telling a mixture from an element or compound
- Salt water - it tastes salty and is a liquid like water

Fe(S) and S(s) - Fe is magnetic before and after mixing.

S (s) is smelly before and after mixing.

- 2) Telling amixture from an element or compound
- The composition of a mixture is NOT fixed

EX I can add a lot or a little salt to water.

- heterogeneous mixture
- visibly different parts.

- Examples of heterogeneous mixtures
- Chicken noodle soup

oil and vinegar salad dressing

an Olympic gold medal (they are only gold plated)

homemade lemonade (there are usually two phases liquid and solid)

- Scientific Notation
- move the decimal so that only one nonzero number is to the left of the decimal.

If you move the decimal to the left the exponent is positive

If you move the decimal to the right the exponent is negative.

- 1,522,000,000,000
- 1.522 * 10∧12

- 1,904,000,000
- 1.904 * 10∧9

- 0.0075
- 7.5 * 10∧-3

- Multiplying Exponents
- The first numbers are multplied while you add the exponent numbers

- 2.0*10∧4* 3.0 * 10∧-1
- 6.0 * 10∧3

- 4.0 * 10∧7 * 2.0 * 10∧12
- 8.0 * 10∧19

- Dividing Exponents
- The first numbers are divided while the exponent numbers get subtracted - It's numerator subtracted by the denominator.

- 9.0 * 10∧4/2.0 * 10∧8
- 9.0/2.0 = 4.5 * 10∧4-8 = 4.5 * 10∧-4

- TI - 83 Version
- 9*10∧4/(2.0*10∧8) = 4.5 E-4 = 4.5 * 10∧-4

- 6.0 * 10∧-9/2.0 * 10∧7
- 3.0 * 10∧-16

- Power of exponents
- anything to the zero power is 1

- 10∧0
- 1

- 2∧0
- 1

- Adding and subtracting numbers with exponents
- The exponent base number is the same.

- 2.0 * 10∧4 + 8.0 * 10∧5
- 2.0 * 10∧4 + 8.0*10∧5

.20*10∧4+1

.20 * 10∧5 + 8.0 * 10∧5

= 8.2 * 10∧5

- 9.0 * 10∧7 - 5.0 * 10∧6
- 9.0 * 10∧7 - .50 * 10∧6

8.5*10∧7

- Percent Composition
- pts from test/total pts * 100

mass of interest/total mass * 100

- You have a 12g alloy made up of 2 g of Al, 3g of Fe and the rest Cu. What is the % by mass of Cu in the alloy
- 7/12g = 58.53 %