Glossary of Chemistry Chap. 4-7

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Conversion factor
a ratio of equivalent measurements used to convert a quantity from one unit to another
Dimensional Analysis
a technique of problem solving that uses the units that are part of a measurement to help solve the problem
Alkali Metal
any metal in group 1A of the periodic table
Alkaline earth Metals
Any metal in groups 2A of the periodic table
the smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of that element
Atomic Mass
the weighted average of the masses of the isotopes of an element
atomic mass unit (amu)
a unit of mass equal to one twelfth the mass of a carbon-12 atom
Atomic Number
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of an element
Cathode Ray
a stream of electrons produced at the negative electrode (cathode) of a tube containing a gas at low pressure
Dalton's Atomic Theory
the first theory to relate chemical changes to events at the atomic level
a negatively charged subatomic particle
a vertical column of elements in the periodic table; the constituent elements of a group have similar chemical and physical properties
any member of the non-metallic elements in Group 7A of the periodic table
Inner Transition Metal
an element on the lanthanide and actinide series; characterized by addition of electrons to f orbits
atoms of the same element that have the same atomic number but different atomic masses sue to a different number of neutrons
Mass Number
the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
one of a class of elements that includes a large majority of the knows elements, metals are characteristically lustrous, malleable, ductile, and good conductors of heat and electricity
one of a class of elements having properties intermediate to metals and nonmetals
a subatomic particle with no charge and a mass of 1 amu; found in the nucleus of the atom
noble gas
any member of a group of gaseous element in group 0 of the periodic table; the s and p sublevles of their outermost energy level are filled
one of a class of elements that are not lustrous and are generally poor conductors of heat and electricity; non metals are grouped on the right side of the periodic table
the dense central portion of an atom, composed of protons and neutrons
a horizontal row of elements on the periodic table
periodic law
when the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their physical and chemical properties
Periodic table
an arrangement of elements into rows and columns according to similarities in their properties
a positively charged subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom
Representative element
Group A element on the periodic table; together, these elements which have only partially filled outermost s and p sublevels, illustrate the entire range of chemical properties
Transition metals
Group B element characterized by addition of electrons to d suborbitals
any atoms or group of atoms with a negative charge
Binary compound
a compound of two elements; NaCl and Al2O3 are binary compounds
any atom or group of atoms with a positive charge
chemical formula
shows the number and type of atoms present in the smallest representative unit of a substance the chemical formula of ammonia, with one nitrogen and 3 hydrogens, is NH3
Formula Unit
the lowest whole number ratio of ions in an ionic compound; in magnesium chloride the ratio of magnesium ions to chloride ions is 1:2 and the formula unit is Mg Cl2
an atom of group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge; cations are ions with a positive charge, and anions are ions with a negative charge
ionic compound
a compound composed of positive and negative ions
Law of Definite Proportions
in any sample of a chemical compound, the elements are always combined in the same proportions by mass
Law of Multiple Proportions
whenever two elements form more than one compound, the different masses of one element that combine with the same mass of the other element are in the ratio of small whole numbers
Molecular Compound
a compound that is composed of molecules
Molecular Formula
a chemical formula that shows the actual number and kinds of atoms present in a molecule of a compound
a neutral chemically bonded group of atoms that act as a unit
Monatomic Ion
a single atom with a positive or negative charge as a result of losing or gaining Valence electrons
Polyatomic Ion
a tightly bound group of atoms that behaves as a unit and carries a charge
Ternary Compound
a compound containing atoms of three different elements, usually containing at least one polyatomic ion; Na2CO3 and Mg(OH)2 are ternary ionic compounds
Avogardo's Number
the number of representative particles contained in one mole of a substance; equal to 6.02 x 10²³ particles
empirical Formula
a formula with the lowest whole number ratio of elements in a compound; the empirical formula of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is OH
Gram Atomic Mass (gam)
the mass, in grams of one mole of atoms in a monatomic element; it is numerically equal to the atomic mass amu
Gram Formula Mass (gfm)
the mass of one mole of an ionic compound
Gram Molecular Mass (gmm)
the mass in grams of one mole of a molecular substance
Molar Mass
a general expression used to refer to the mass of a mole of any substance unless a more specific term is needed to avoid confusion
Molar Volume
the volume occupies by 1 mole of a gas at standard temperature and pressure (STP); 22.4 L
Mole (mol)
The amount of a substance that contains 6.02 x 10²³ representative particles of that substance
percent composition
the percent by mass of each element in a compound

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