Glossary of Chemistry Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry
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- Define: Exchange (Metathesis) Reactions
- A reaction in which the reactants exchange ions.
- Why do scientists use a double arrow reaction indicator?
- TO indicate the reaction can go either way and to represent the ionization of a weak electrolyte.
- What are the molecular compounds that contribute ions in an aqueous solution called?
- Of what is a molecular compound usually formed?
- Non-Metallic elements
- Define: Electrolyte
- A substance whose aqueous solution contains ions.
- Define: Solute
- The thing dissolved by a solvent.
- Define: Acid-Based Reaction
- Reaction in which H+ ions are transferred between reactants.
- Define: Precipitation Reaction
- Reaction in which soluble reactants yield an insoluble product.
- Define: Aqueous Solution
- Solution in which water is the dissolving medium.
- Define: Acid
- Substance that ionizes in an aqueous solution to form hydrogen ions increasing the number of H+ ions. A proton donor.
- Define: Monoprotic Acid
- A substance that yields one hydrogen ion per molecule of acid.
- Define: Diprotic Acid
- A substance that yeilds two H+ ions per molecule of acid.
- Define: Base
- A substance that acts as a H+ receptor.
- What type of ions do bases produce in water?
- Hydroxide ions (OH-)
- Name three common bases.
- NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)2
- Name a base that does not include hydroxide ions.
- Ammonia (NH3)
- Define: Strong Base, Strong Acid
- Both completely ionize in a solution
- Name six strong acids
- HCl, HBr, HI, HClO3, HNO3, H2SO4
- Name: HCl
- Hydrochloric Acid (strong)
- Name: HBr
- Hydrobromic Acid (strong)
- Name: HI
- Hydroiodic Acid (strong)
- Name: HClO4
- Perchloric Acid (strong)
- Name: HNO3
- Nitric Acid (strong)
- Name: H2SO4
- Sulfuric Acid (strong)
- Name 8 strong bases
- LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH, Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2
- What are the two steps to determine whether a compound is a strong electrolyte?
- 1. Determine if an ionic compound. If not..
2. Identify if it is a strong acid.
- Define: Neutralization Reaction
- A reaction between an acid and a base that produces water and salt.
- Name two bases besides OH- that react with H+ to form molecular compounds.
- CO3 2- (carbonate), S 2-Sulfide
- What do carbonates and bicarbonates react with acids to create?
- First Carbonic Acid H2CO3 (which is unstable) and then Carbon Dioxide gas
- Define: Oxydation Reduction (redox) Reaction
- A reaction in which electrons are transferred between reactants.
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