Glossary of Chemistry 2nd Semester Final Exam

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ionization energy
energy needed for an atom to lose an electron

up and to the right
how an atom behaves when its in a chemical bond rather than by itself

up and to the right
atomic size (radius)
an atom's size

down and left
chemical reactivity of metals and nonmetals
how easily an element reacts with others

split by stairs
left side: left and down
right side: right and up
alkali metals
first group, one valence
metallic bonding
solid except HG, good conductors, malleable, shiny
ionic boding
brittle solids, high bond energy,
covalent bonding
(molecular bonding) softer solids, not conductors, have lower melting points
polar covalent
electrons are shared unequally.. unequal distribution of charge
nonpolar covalent
electrons are shared equally with equal distribution of charge
bond type
subtract electronegativities
IM forces
most compounds have london dispersion, Hbond is strongest.
Small particles, little effect of gravity, homogenous
medium particle size, tyndall effect with light, moderate effect from gravity, homogenous
large particle size, large effect from gravity effect from filtration, heterogenous
what are the colligatvie properties?
vapor reduction
boiling point elevation
freezing poitn depression
osmotic pressure
what are the unique properties of water?
high BP, specific heat, high surcae tension , more dense in liquid phase than solid
how does each of the following effect solubility?
-surface area (particle size)
-T:inversely for liquids, directly for solids
-SA: directly
-A: directly
what two factors are necessary to make the collisions effective?
1. enough energy to overcome the AE barrier
2. hit at right spots
activation energy
minimum amount of energy needed by the colliding molecules in a chemical reaction to break the bonds of the reactants
increase concentration does what to rate of a reaction and why does it have an effect based on collision theory
increase in rate because molecules collide more often cuz they are closer together
increase in temperature does what to rate of a reaction and why does it have an effect based on collision theory
more ice-faster, bc more collisions in less time
increase in surface area does what to rate of a reaction and why does it have an effect based on collision theory
increased rate, bc more reactnat exposed to surface
exothermic reaction
-H value negative.
-releases heat, temp surrounding increases
-heat placed in products
-energy is put in to break bonds and given off when new bonds are formed
-products have less energy
endothermic reaction
-H value is positive
-reaction absorbs heat
-surrounding temp less
-heat on reactants side
-energy put in to break bonds and given off to make
-more energy in products
Spontaneity depends on...
entropy (disorder) and enthalpy (heat)
how does entropy and enthalpy relate to spontaneity
equilibrium is reached the ________ of the product formation equals the _________ of the reactant formation
rate rate
__________ principle states that when a stress is applied to a system, the system _______ to relieve that stress
le chatelier's..shift

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