Glossary of Chemistry 1st Semester Review Cards
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- JJ Thompson
- JJT discovered the electron using a cathode ray. He found that e- could be removed from atoms. Stated:All atoms have e-, are neutral, and have protons.
- substance that contains only one kind of atom, cannot be broken down into new material. ex.gold, aluminum *The pure gold chain is an element.
- substance made up of two or more kinds of atoms. ex. salt, water
*Water is a compound made up of Hydrogen and Oxygen.
- Milliken determined the mass of the e- using the oil drop experiment.
*Milliken discovered that the mss of e- is 9.11E-31 kg
- Alpha Particle
- is a radioactive(subatomic) particle with a positive charge. ex.unstable elements like Na emmit beta particles
*The radioactive explosion released alpha particles.
- Beta Particle
- is a radioactive subatomic) particle with a negative charge. ex.unstable elements like Na emmit beta particles *The radioactive explosion released beta particles.
- developed the first periodic table. He organized elements by atomic mass, and properties. ex. he put metals with metals
- developed the Nuclear Atom model. it has a dense + core w/ a - outside charge. ex. he proved this theory w the gold foil experiment shooting + charges through the foil
- Gold Foil Experiment
- used by Rutherford to discover the dense + core of atoms. He shot + particles into a Au foil sheet and some reflected.
- Bohr model of atom
- Planetary model, e- orbit. dif. orbits=dif. energy levels ex. the outer orbit energy > than the first orbit energy
- Frequency of a Wave
- f=1/T or f=v/wavelength
- Energy Level
- The energy level of an e- relates to what orbital it is at. ex.The energy level of an e- is at its highest when it is at a far orbital.
- Chemical Group
- A chemical group includes all of the elements in a column of the periodic table. ex. The Noble Gas group is the column farthest right of the PT.
- Valence Electrons
- Valence e- are all electrons in the outer most orbital of an atom. ex. The elements in the Noble Gas group have 8 valence electrons
- Noble Gas
- Noble Gases are non-reactive elements with 8 valence electrons. ex. Neon is in the Noble Gas group.
- Melting Point
- A temperature where a substance changes state from a solid to a liquid. ex. the melting point of water is 32 degrees F.
- Is the change in state of a substance from solid to gas w/o passing through the liquid sate. ex.Dry ice goes through sublimation at room temperature.
- Change of sate of a substance from gas to solid w/o passing through the liquid state. ex.Water vapor in the freezer freezes into a solid.
- Is the substance being mixed into a solvent in a solution. ex. chocolate powder is a solute in chocolate milk
- is the substance in which a solute is being mixed in a solution. ex. mild is a solvent in chocolate milk
- Tyndall effect
- is when light is scattered in a colloid mixture. ex. The colloid fog goes through the Tyndall effect
- Heterogeneous mixture
- a mixture where the particles are visible to the naked eye. ex. dirt in water
- Homogeneous mixture
- a mixture where the particles mix in completely and are not visible. ex. food coloring in water
- a measurement of how much mass is in a certain volume. ex. There are 19.3 grams of mass in a cubic centimeter of gold.
- A compound that is made up of only hydrogen and oxygen atoms. ex. propane, propene
- A substance with a pH lower than 7. it is a hydrogen ion giver. ex. battery acid, vinegar
- A substance with a pH higher than 7. it is a hydrogen ion receiver. ex. ammonia, milk
- flame test
- test where metal is burned and gives off a unique color to ID the metal ex.sodium turns the flame bright orange.
- organic means that the substance contains carbon. ex.Even pesticides with carbon are considered organic.
- chains made up of monomers during polymerization. ex. proteins are polymers.
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