Glossary of Chemistry 1 Vocabulary

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closeness of measurements to the correct or accepted value of the quantity measured
a negative ion
electrode where oxidation takes place
smallest unit of mass of an element that maintains the properties of that element
atomic mass unit
unit of mass that is exactly 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom
atomic number
number of protons in the nucleus of each atom of an element
auogadro's law
equal volumes of gasses at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules
device used to measure atmospheric pressure
boiling point
temperature at which the equilibrium vapor pressure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure
Boyle's law
volume of a fixed mass of gas varies inversely with pressure at constant temperature
substance that changes the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being permanently consumed
electrode where reduction takes place
positive ion
Charles' law
volume of a fixed mass of gas at constant pressure varies directly with the Kelvin temperature
any substance that has a definite composition
chemical change
a change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances
chemical equation
a representation with symbols and formulas of the identities and relative amounts of the reactants and products in a chemical unchanged
chemical property
ability of a substance to undergo a charge that transforms it into a different substance
chemical reaction
reaction in which one or more substances are converted into a different substance.
the study of the composition, structure and properties of matter and the changes it undergoes
small whole number that appears in front of a formula in a chemical equation
composition reaction
reaction in which 2 or more substances combine to form a new compound
combustion reaction
reaction in which a substance combines with oxygen, releasing a large amount of energy in the form of light and heat
substance that is made from the atoms of 2 or more elements that are chemically bonded
measure of the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent or solution
covalent bonding
chemical bond resulting from the sharing of an e- pair between 2 atoms
Dalton's law of partial pressure
total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of component gases
decomposition reaction
reaction in which a single compound produces 2 or more simpler substances
ratio of mass to volume or mass divided by volume
derived unit
unit that is a combination of SI base units
diatomic molecule
molecule containing only 2 atoms
ability of a substance to be drawn, pulled, or extruded through a small opening to produce a wire
elastic collision
collision between gas particles and between gas particles and container wall in which there is no loss of kinetic energy
conductor used to establish electrical contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit, such as an electrolyte
electron affinity
energy change that occurs when an e- is acquired by a neutral atom
electron dot notation
electron configuration in which only the valence e- of an atom of a particular element are shown, indicated by dots placed around the element's symbol
pure substance made of only one kind of atom
empirical formula
symbols for the elements combined in a compound with subscripts showing the smallest whole number mole ratio of the different atoms in the compound
dynamic condition in which 2 opposing changes occur at equal rates in a closed system
process by which particles escape from the surface of a nonboiling liquid and enter the gas state
vertical column of the periodic table
substance that can flow and therefore take the shape of its container; a liquid or a gas
formula mass
sum of the average atomic masses of all the atoms represented in the formula of any molecule, formula, unit, or ion
formula unit
simplest collection of atoms from which an ionic compound's formula can be established
freezing point
temperature at which a solid and liquid are in equilibrium at 1 atomic pressure
number of waves that pass a given point in a specific time, usually 1 second
state of matter in which a substance has neither definite volume nor definite shape
gas laws
simple mathematical relationships between the volume, temperature, pressure, and quantity of gas
Gay-Lussac's law
pressure of a fixed mass of gas at constant volume varies directly with the Kelvin temp
vertical column of the periodic table
1 of the elements of group 17, fluorine, chlorine, bromin, iodine, and astatine
not having a uniform composition throughout
having a uniform composition throughout
hydrogen bonding
intermolecular force in which a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom is attracted to an unshared pair of electrons of an electronegative atom in a nearby molecule
ideal gas
imaginary gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory
atom or group of bonded atoms that has a positive or negative charge
ionic bonding
chemical bond resulting from electrical attraction between large numbers of cations and anions
ionic compound
compound composed of positive and negative ions that are combined so that the numbers of positive and negative charges are equal
atoms of the same element that have different masses
kinetic-molecular theory
theory based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion
law of conservation of mass
mass is neither created nor destroyed during ordinary chemical or physical reactions
law of multiple proportions
2 or more different compounds are composed of the same 2 elements, then the ratio of the masses of the 2nd element combined with a certain mass of the 1st element is always a ratio of small whole numbers
law of definite proportions
chemical compound contains the same proportions by mass regardless of the size of the sample or the source of the compound
Lewis structure
formula in which atomic symbols represent nuclei and inner-shell electrons, dot-pairs or dashes between 2 atomic symbols represent electron pairs in covalent bonds, and dots adjacent to only 1 atomic symbol represent unshared electrons
limiting reactant
reactant that limits the amounts of the other reactants that can combine and the amount of product that can form in a chemical reaction
state of matter in which the substance has a definite volume but an indefinite shape
magnetic quantum number
quantum # that indicates the orientation of an orbital around the nucleus
ability of a substance to be hammered or beaten into thin sheets
measure of the amount of matter
mass number
total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an isotope
anything that has mass and takes up space
physical change of a solid to a liquid by the addition of heat
melting point
temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid
element that is a good conductor of heat and electricity
element that has some characteristics of metals and some characteristics of nonmetals
millimeters of mercury
common units of pressure
molar mass
mass of 1 mole of a pure substance
number of moles of solution in 1 liter of solution
amount of a substance that contains as many particles as there are atoms in exactly 12g of carbon-12
mole ratio
conversion factor that relates the amounts in a mole of any 2 substances involved in a chemical reaction
molecular compound
chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules
molecular formula
formula showing the types and numbers of atoms combined in a single molecule of a molecular compound
neutral group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds
monatomic ion
ion formed from a single atom
noble gas
group 18 element helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon
naming system
element that is a poor conductor of heat and electricity
Octet Rule
chemical compounds tend to form so that each atom, by gaining, losing, or sharing electrons, has an octet of electrons in its highest occupied energy level
percent error
value calculated by subtracting the experimental value from the accepted value, dividing the difference by the accepted value, and them multiplied by 100.
percent yield
ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield, multiplied by 100

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