Glossary of Chemistry 14 Terms from high school

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closeness of a measurement to the true value of the quantity that is measured
amount of product actually obtained in a reaction
actual yield
an ion with a net negative charge
smallest piece of an element that can enter into chemical combinations
the number of carbon-12 atoms in exactly 12 grams of carbon-12. it equals 6.022 x 10^23
avogardo's number
A substance capable of donating a proton
Bronsted acid
A substance capable of accepting a proton
Bronsted base
solution that has the ability to resist small changes in pH upon the addition of small amounts of either acid or base
buffer solution
substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being consumed
an ion with a net positive charge
processes in which one or more substances are converted into other substances
chemical reaction
the area of chemistry concerned with the speeds, or rates, at which chemcial reactions occur
chemical kinetics
substance composed of atoms of two or more elements chemically united in fixed proportions
bond in which two electrons are shared by two atoms
covalent bond
mass of a substance divided by its volume
gradual mixing of one substance with another due to random molecular motion
procedure for preparing a less concentrated solution from a more concentrated solution
substance that, when dissolved in water, results in a solution that can conduct electricity
ability of an atom to attract electrons toward itself in a chemical bond
substance that cannot be seperated into simpler substances by chemical means
processes that absorb heat from the surroundings
endothermic processes
capacity to do work or to produce change
biological catalyst
state in which there are no observable changes as time goes by
one or more reactants present in quantities greater than those needed to react with quantity of the limiting reagent
excess reagents
processes that give off heat to the surroundings
exothermic processes
energy can be converted from one form to another, but cannot be created or destroyed
first law of thermodynamics
transfer of thermal energy (energy associated with the random motion of atoms and molecules) between two bodies that are at different temperatures
when reactants are converted to products, the change in enthalpy is the same whether the reaction takes place in one step or in a series of steps
hess's law
a special type of dipole-dipole interaction between molecules containing hydrogen bonded to an electronegative element. The most important examples involve nitrogen, oxygen and fluorine. For instance, the attraction between a hydrogen on one water molecu
hydrogen bond
compounds other than organic compounds
inorganic compounds
charged species
electrostatic force that holds ions together in an ionic compound
ionic bond
minimum energy required to remove an electron from an isolated atom (or an ion) in its ground state
ionization energy
atoms having the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
Unit of energy given by newtons - meters
energy available becauce of the motion of an object
kinetic energy
If an external stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system will adjust itself in such a way as to partially offset the stress
Le Chatelier's principle
the reactant used up first in a reaction
limiting reagent
properties that can be measured directly
macroscopic properties
Elements that are good conductors of heat and electricity and have the tendency to form positive ions in ionic compounds
a combination of two or more substances in which the substances retain their identity
the mass (in grams or kilograms) of one mole of atoms, molecules, or other particles
molar mass
number of moles of solute in one liter of solution
molarity (M)
a collection of Avogadro's number (6.022x10^23) of objects; for example, a mole of H2O is 6.022x10^23 H2O molecules
a neutral aggregate of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
a substance that, when dissolved in water, gives a solution that is not electrially conducting
elements that are usually poor conductors of heat and electricity, and have the tendency to gain electrons and form negative ions
a molecule that does not possess a dipole moment
nonpolar molecule
an atom other than hydrogen tends to form bonds until it is surrounded by eight valence electrons
octet rule
branch of chemistry that deals with carbon compounds
organic chemistry
number of charges an atom would have in a molecule if electrons were transferred completely in the direction of the atoms with the higher electronegativity
oxidation number
the half-reaction that involves the loss of electrons
oxidation reaction
a substance that can accept electrons from another substance or increase the oxidation number in another substance.
oxidizing agent
ratio of actual yield to theoretical yield, multiplied by 100%
percent yield
the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration
a particle of light
any property of a substance that can be observed without transforming the substance into some other substance
physical property
molecule that possesses a dipole moment
polar molecule
energy available by virtue of an object's position
potential energy
an insoluble solid that seperatesfrom the solution
the closeness of agreement of two or more measurements of the same quantity.
force applied per unit area
a reaction in which there is either a transfer of electrons or a change in the oxidation numbers of teh substances taking part in the reaction
redox reaction
half-reaction that involves the gain of electrons
reduction reaction
an ionic compound made up of a cation (other than H+) and an anion (other than OH- or O2-)
at a given temperature, the solution that results when the maximum amount of a substance dissolves in a solvent
saturated solution
number of meaningful digits in a measured or calculated quantity
significant figures
maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent at a specific temperature
substance present in smaller amount in a solution
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
substance present in larger amount in a solution
amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of the substance by one degree celsius
specific heat
ions that are not involved in teh overall reaction
spectator ions
amount of product predicted by the balanced equation when all of the limiting reagent has reacted.
theoretical yield
study of heat changes in chemical reactions
the scientific study of the interconversion of heat and other forms of energy
the gradual addition of a solution of accurately known concentration to another solution of unknown concentration until the chemical reaction between the two solutions is complete

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