Glossary of Chemistry 1300 Final Test

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The science of the composition, structure, properties, and reactions of matter, especially of atomic and molecular systems.
The science dealing with the composition of matter and the changes in composition that matter undergoes.
Chagnes that involve the rearrangement of the position of particles within the solid
1) Collect the facts or data that are relevent to the problem or question at hand
2) Formulate a hypothesis that will account for the data and that can be tested by further experimentation
3) Plan and do additional experiments to test the hypot
Scientific Method
A tentative explanation of certain facts that provides a basis for further experimentation
A well-established hypothesis is often called a __________ or model, An explanation of the general principles of certain phenomena with considerable evidence or facts to support it
Simple statements of natural phenomena to which no exceptions are known under the given conditions
Scientific laws
The quantity or amount of matter that an object possesses
A measure of the earth's gravitational attraction for a body
The number of digits that are known plus one estimated digit are considered significant in a measured quantity; also called significant digits
Significant figures
The process by which the value of the last digit retained is determined after dropping nonsignificant digits
Rounding off numbers
Writing a number as a power of 10; to do this, move the decimal point in the original numbers so that it is located after the first nonzero digit, and follow the new number by a multiplication sign and 10 with an exponent (called its power) that is the n
Scientific notation
A decimal system of measurements; An agreed-upn standard system of measurements used by scientists around the world
Metric system or SI
The standard unit of length in the SI and metric systems; equals 39.37 inches
The standard unit of mass in the metric system; equals 2.205 lbs.
The amount of space occupied by matter; measured in SI units by cubic meters, but also commonly in liters and milliliters
A unit of volume commonly used in chemistry; =1000 mL
A form of energy associated with the motion of small particles of matter
A measure of the intensity of heat, or of how hot or cold a system is; SI unit is the kelvin
The mass of an object divided by its volume
The ratio of the density of one substance to the density of another substance taken as a standard. Water is usually the standard for liquids and solids; air, for gass
Specific gravity
Anything that has mass and occupies space
Has a definite shape and volume, with particles that coere rigidly to one another, can be independent of its container
Without shape or form
Has a definite volume, but not a definite shape, with particles that cohere firmly, but not rigidly, able to move freely
Has indefinite volume and no fixed shape, with particles that move indeendently of one anothers
A particular kind of matter with a definite, fixed composition
Uniform in appearance and has the same properties throughout
Matter consisting of two or more physically distinct phases
A homogeneous part of a system separated from other parts by physical boundaries
Simply the body of matter under consideration
A material containing two or more substances and can be either heterogeneous or homogeneous, variable in composition
A fundamental or elementary substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means to simpler substances
Smallest particle of an element
Abbreviation of an element, Ba I N O Ag
Solids at room temperature, have high luster, are good conductors of heat and electricity, are malleable, and are ductile, have a high melting point and high density
Are not lustrous, have relatively low melting points and densities, and are generally poor conductors of heat and electricity, Combine with one another
An element having properties that are intermediate between those of metals and nonmetals (ex. Silicon); these elements are useful in electronics
A distinct substance that contains two or more elements chemically combined in definite proportion by mass
The smallest uncharged individual unit of ompund formed by the union of two or more atoms
A positively or negatively charged atom or group of atoms
Positively charged ions
Negatively charged ion
The molecules of elements that always contain two atoms. Seven elements occur: H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, and I2
Diatomic molecules
Used as abbreviations for compounds, shows the symbols and the ratio of the atoms of the elements in a compound
Chemical formula
Numbers that appear partially below the line and to the right of a symbol of an element
The characteristics, or traits, of substances that give them their unique identities, classified as physical or chemical
The inherent characteristics of a substance that can be determined without altering its composition; they are associated with its physical existance
Physical properties
Describe the ability of a substance to form new substances, either by reaction with other substances or by decomposition
Chemical properties
Changes in physical properties (such as size, shape, and density) or changes in the state of matter without an accompanying change in composition
Physical changes
New substances are formed that have different properties and composition from the original material. The new substances need not resemble the initial material in any way.
Chemical change
A shorthand expression showing the composition and the products of a chemical change (for example, 2H20= 2H2 + 02)
Chemical equations
The starting substances (water, copper, and oxygen)
The substance produced (hydrogen, oxygen, and copper (II) oxide)
States that no change is observed in the total mass of the substances involved in a chemical change
Law of Conservation of Mass
The capacity of matter to do work
Stored energy; or energy that an object possesses due to its relative position.
Potential energy (PE)
Energy that matter possesses due to its motion.
Kinetic energy (KE)
The SI unit of energy, see also calorie
A commonly used unit of heat energy; 1 calorie is a quantity of heat energy that will raise the temperature of 1 g of water 1° C
The quantity of heat (lost or gained) required to cahnge the temperature of 1 g of that substance by 1° C
Specific heat
Energy can be neither created nor destroyed, though it can be transformed from one form to another
Law of Conservation of Energy
The first modern atomic theory to state that elements are composed of minute individual particles called atoms
Dalton's atomic model
A compound always contains two or more elements combined in a definite proportion by mass
Law of Definite composition
Atoms of two or more elements may combine in different ratios to produce more than one compound
Law of Multiple proportions
Electrons, protons, and neutrons
Subatomic particles
A particle with a negative electrical charge and a mass of 9.110 x 10 -28 g
Electron (e-)
A particle with a relative mass of 1 amu and an actual mass of 1.673 x 10 -24 g. Has relative charge (+1)
The electrons are negatively charged particles embedded in the atomic sphere, atoms are electrically neutral, sphere contains equal number of protons, or positive charges
Thomson model of the atom
Has neither a positive nor a negative charge and has a relatvie mass of about 1 amu. Slightly greater mass than proton
The central part of an atom that contains all its protons and neutrons. Very dense and has a positive electrical charge
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of that element
Atomic Number
Atoms of an element having the same atomic number but different atomic masses
A unit of mass equal to one-twelth the mass of a carbon-12 atom.
Atomic Mass Unit
The average relative mass of the isotopes of that element compared to the atomic mass of carbon-12 ( exactly 12.0000... amu)
Atomic Mass
The system of names that chemists use to identify compounds
Chemical nomenclature
Compounds that do not generally contain carbon
Inorganic compounds
Two atoms bonded together to make a molecule, Seven of the elements
Diatomic molecules
Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Chlorine, Fluorine, Bromine, Iodine
A charged particle can be produced by adding or removing one or more electrons from a neutral atom
Any neutral atom that loses an electron will form a(n) _______
Any neutral atom that gains an electron will form a(n) _________
To name an anion consisting of only one element, use the stem of the parent element name and change the ending to ________
Most often ions are formed when metals combine with ____________
Compound that contains only two different elements
Binary compound
The cation is written first in the formula, followed by the ___________
1) Cu 1+, copper (I)
2) Cu 2+, copper (II)
3) Hg 1+ (Hg2)2+, Mercury (I)
4) HG 2+, Mercury (II)
1) Cuprous
2) Cupric
3) Mercurous
4) Mercuric
1) Fe 2+, Iron (II)
2) Fe 3+, Iron (III)
3) Sn 2+, Tin (II)
4) Sn 4+, Tin (IV)
5) Pb 2+, Lead (II)
1) Ferrous
2) Ferric
3) Stannous
4) Stannic
5) Plumbous
1) Pb 4+, Lead (IV)
2) As 3+, Arsenic (III)
3) As 5+, Arsenic (V)
4) Ti 3+, Titanium (III)
5) Ti 4+, Titanium (IV)
1) Plumbic
2) Arsenous
3) Arsenic
4) Titanous
5) Titanic
Symbols written and occur first in a series when a compound is formed between two nonmetals
Si, B, P, H, C, S, I, Dr, N, Cl, O, F
1) Nona
2) Hepta
3) Tetra
4) Mono
1) 9
2) 7
3) 4
5) 1
1) Deca
2) Octa
3) Hexa
4) Penta
5) Tri
6) Di
1) 10
2) 8
3) 6
4) 5
5) 3
6) 2
disulfur decafluoride
carbon tetrachlorid
dinitrogen pentaoxide
Composed of hyrdrogen and one other nonmetallic element
Binary acids
Binary Acids
1) HF
2) HCl
3) H₂S
1) Hydrofluoric acid
2) Hydrochloric acid
3) Hydrosulfuric acid
1) HBr
2) HI
3) H₂Se
1) Hydrobromic acid
2) Hydroiodic acid
3) Hydroselenic acid
1) Write the prefix hydro- followed by the stem of the second element and add the suffix ic
2) Write the word acid
Naming binary acids
An ion that contains two or more elements
Polyatomic ion
1) Acetate
2) Ammonium
3) Arsenate
4) Hydrogen carbonate
5) Hydrogen sulfate
6) Bromate
7) Carbonate
8) Chlorate
9) Chromate
1) C₂H₃O₂⁻
2) NH₄⁺
3) AsO₄ 3-
4) HCO₃⁻
5) HSO₄⁻
6) BrO₃⁻
7) CO₃ 2-
8) ClO₃⁻
9) CrO₄ 2-
1) Cyanide
2) Dichromate
3) Hydroxide
4) Nitrate
5) Nitrite
6) Permangante
7) Phosphate
8) Sulfate
9) Sulfite
1) CN⁻
2) Cr₂O₇ 2-
3) OH⁻
4) NO₃⁻
5) NO₂⁻
6) MnO₄⁻
7) PO₄ 3-
8) SO₄ 2-
9) SO₃ 2-
A system that uses Roman numerals to name elements that form more than one type of cation
Stock System
1) Hypochlorite
2) Chlorite
3) Chlorate
4) Perchlorate
1) ClO⁻
2) ClO₂⁻
3) ClO₃⁻
4) ClO₄⁻
1) Hypochlorous acid
2) Chlorous acid
3) Chloric acid
4) Perchloric acid
1) HClO
2) HClO₂
3) HClO₃
4) HClO₄
1) Sulfate ion
2) Sulfite ion
3) Nitrate ion
4) Nitrite ion
5) Carbonate ion
6) Borate ion
1) SO₄ 2-
2) SO₃ 2-
3) NO₃⁻
4) NO₂⁻
5) CO₃ 2-
6) BO₃ 3-
1) Phosphate ion
2) Phosphite ion
3) Iodate ion
4) Acetate ion
5) Oxalate ion
6) Bromate ion
1) PO₄ 3-
2) PO₃ 3-
3) IO₃⁻
4) C₂H₃O₂⁻
5) C₂O₄ 2-
6) BrO₃⁻
1 mol, 6.022 x 10^23
Avagadro's Number
6.022 x 10^23 items=
1 mole
The mass of avogadro's number of atoms or molecules

H- 1.008 amu- 1.008 g- 6.022 x 10^23
Molar Mass
The mass percent represented by each element in a compound
Percent composition of a compound
Gives the smallest whole-number ratio of atoms present in a compound, gives the relative numbe of atoms of each element in the compound
Empirical formula
The true formula, representing the toal number of atoms of each element present in one molecule of a compound
Molecular formula
The substances entering the reaction are called
the reactants
The substances formed are called
the products
A shorthand expression for a chemical change or reaction, uses the chemical symbols and formulas of the reactants and products and other symbolic terms to represent a chemical reaction
Chemical equation
Contains the same number of each kind of atom on each side of the eqaution, obeys the law of conservation of mass
Balanced equation
Two reactants combine to give one product, A + B ---- AB
Combination reaction
One element reacts with a compound to replace one of the elements of that compound, yeilding a different element and a different compound

A + BC ---- B + AC or
A + BC ---- C + BA
Single-displacement reaction
A single substance is decomposed, or broken down, to give two or more different substances. This reaction may be considered the reverse of combination

AB --- A + B
Decomposition reaction
Two compounds exchange partners with each other to produce two different compounds

AB + CD ---- AD + CB
Double-displacement reaction
Liberate heat
Exothermic reactions
Absorb heat
Endothermic reactions
The quantity of heat produced by a reaction is known as
Heat of reaction
Compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon
The amount of energy that must be supplied to start a chemical reaction is called the
Activation energy
The sum of the atomic masses of all the atoms in an element or compound, applies to the mass of a mole of any formula unit- atoms, molecules, or ions; it is the atomic mass of an atom, or the sum of the atomic masses in a molecule or an ion (in grams)
Molar mass
The smallest unit of a molecular substance and a mole is Avogadro's number of molecules of that substance
Relationship between molecule and mole
The area of chemistry that deals with quantitative relationships among reactants and products is known as
A ratio between the number of moles of any two species involved in a chemical reaction
Mole ratio
It limits the amount of product that can be formed
Limiting reactant
The calculated amount of product that can be obtained from a given amount of reactant, according to the chemical equation
Theoretical yield
The amount of product that we finally obtain
Actual yield
The ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield multiplied by 100
Percent yeild
The distance between consecutive peaks (or troughs) in a wave
Tells how many waves pass a particular point per second
Tells how fast a wave moves through space
A beam of light behaves like a stream of timy packets of energy called
Colored lines generated when light emitted by a gas is passed through a spectroscope.
Line spectrum
Energy is never emitted in a continuous stream buy only in small discrete packets called
Number of energy levels are available, the lowest of which is called the ______ _______
Ground state
A cloudlike region around the nucleus where electrons are located. Considered to be energy sublevels (s,p,d,f) within the principal energy levels
Existing within the atom, these energy levels contain orbitals within which electrons are found
Principal energy levels of electrons
Each principal energy level is divided into
A property of an electron that describes its appearance of spinning on an axis like a globe
An atomic orbital can hold a maximum of two electrons, which must have opposite spins
Pauli exclusion principle
The orbital arrangement of electrons in an atom
Electron configuration
An electron in the outermost energy level of an atom; these electrons are the ones involved in bonding atoms together to form compounds
Valence electrons
Each horizontal row in the periodic table is called a
Elements that behave in a similar manner are found in, form the vertical columns on the periodic table
Groups or Families
The A groups are known as the
Representative elements
The B groups and Group VIII are called
Transition elements
An atom is the energy required to remove an electron from the atom
Ionization energy
An atom is a representation that shows the valence electrons for that atom
Lewis structure
The attraction between oppositely charged ions
Ionic bond
Consists of a pair of electrons shared between two atoms
Covalent bond
A covalent bond between two atoms with differeing electronegativity values, resulting in unequal sharing of bonding electrons
Polar covalent bond
The relative attraction that an atom has for a pair of shared electrons in a covalent bond
If the electronegativities are the same, the bond is ________ ________ and the electrons are shared equally
Nonpolar covalent
A molecule that is electrically asymmetrical, causing it to be oppositely charged at two points
When only two pairs of electrons surround a central atom, they should be placed 180 degrees apart to give a _______________
Linear structure
When three pairs of electrons surround an atom, they should be placed 120 degrees apart to show the ____________________
trigonal planar structure
Wehn four pairs of electrons surround a central atom, they should be placed 109.5 degrees apart to give them a ____________________
tetrahedral structure
A group of assumptions used to explain the behavior and properties of gases
Kinetic-molecular theory (KMT)
A gas that behaves exactly as outlined by the theory is known as
Ideal Gas
KE (Kinetic Energy)
The ability of two or more gases to mix spontaneously until they form a uniform mixture
A process by which gas molecules pass through a very small orifice (opening) from a container at higher pressure to one at lower pressure
The reates of effusion of two gases at the same temperature and pressure are inversely proportional to the square roots of their densities, or molar masses
Graham's law of effusion
Defined as forcer per unit area
The pressure experienced by objects on Earth as a result of the layer of air surrounding our planet.
Atmospheric Pressure (ATM)
A device used to measure atmospheric pressure
The standard atmospheric pressure, the pressure exerted by a column of mercury 760 mm high at a temperature of 0 C
1 atmosphere (atm)
At constant temperature (T) the volume (V) of a fixed mass of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure (P), which may be expressed as:

P₁V₁ = P₂V₂
Boyle's law
-273 Degrees C; this temperature is the zero point on the Kelvin (absolute) temperature scale--the temperature at which the volume of an ideal, or perfect, gas would become zero
Absolute Zero
At constant pressure the volume of a fixed mass of any gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature, which may be expressed as:

V₁/T₁ = V₂/T₂
Charle's Law
The pressure of a fixed mass of a gas, at constant volume, is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature:

P₁/T₁ = P₂/T₂
Gay-Lussac's Law
0 degress Celcius (273 K) and 1 atm (760 torr)
Standard Conditions
Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)
The total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressures exerted by each of the gases in the mixture
Dalton's law of partial pressures
The pressure exerted independently by each gas in a mixture of gases
Partial pressure
Whem measured at the same temperature and pressure, the ratios of the volumes of reacting gases are small whole numbers
Gay-Lussac's law of combining volumes
Equal volumes of different gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules
Avagadro's law
he volume of 1 mol of a gas at STP equals 22.4 L/mol
Molar volume (of a gas)
Mass/Volume or g/L
PV = nRT
Ideal Gas Equation
A substance existing in two or more molecular or crystalline forms (example: graphite and diamond are two ______ forms of carbon)
The escape of molecules from the liquid state to the gas or vapor state
Solid -------> Vapor
The process by which molecules in the gaseous state return to the liquid state
The pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with its liquid is known as the _____ _______
Vapor pressure
A substance that evaporates readily; a liquid with a high vapor pressure and a low boiling point
The resistance of a liquid to an increase in its surface area is called
Surface tension
The spontaneous rising of a liquid in a narrow tube, which results from the cohesive forces within the liquid and the adhesive forces between the liquid and the walls of the container
Capillary action
The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the external pressure above the liquid
Boiling point
The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals 1 atm or 760 torr pressure
Normal boiling point
A graph generated by plotting the temperature of a liquid on the x-axis and its vapor pressure on the y-axis.
Vapor-pressure curve
The temperature at which the solid and liquid states of a substance are in equilibrium
Freezing or Meling point
The energy required to change exactly one gram of a solid at its melting point into a liquid is called
Heat of Fusion
The energy required to change exactly one gram of liquid to vapor at its normal boiling point
Heat of Vaporization
Water is a highly polar molecule. It therefore does not have a ______ ________
Linear structure
The intermolecular force acting between molecules that contain hydrogen covalently bonded to the highly electronegative elements, F, O, and N
Hydrogen bond
Solids that contain water molecules as part of their crystallin structure are known as
Water in a hydrate is known as
Water of hydration
Water of crystallization
"without water"
A system in which one or more substances are homogeneously mixed or dissolved in another substance
The substance that is dissolved--or the lest abundant component--in a solution
The dissolving agent or the most abundant component in a solution
Describes the amount of one substance (solute) that will dissolve in a specified amount of another substance (solvent) under stated conditions
Liquids that are capable of mixing and forming a solution
Those that do not form solutions or are generally insoluble in each other
The quantitative expression of the amount of dissolved solute in a particular quantity of solvent is known
Concentration of a solution
A solution containing dissolved solute in equilibrium with undissolved solute
Saturated solution
A solution containing less solute per unit volume than its corresponding saturated solution
Unsaturated solution
A solution containing more solute than needed for a saturated solution at a particular temperature
Supersaturated solution
Describes a solution that contains a relatively small amount of dissolved solute
Dilute solution
Contains a relatively large amount of dissolved solute
Concentrated solution
g solute/g solute + g solvent X 1,000,000 =
Parts per million (ppm)
g solute/ g solute + g solvent X 100 =
Mass percent
number of moles of solute
_________________________ =

liter of solution
Molarity (M)
Properties that depend only on the number of solute particles in a solution and not on the nature of those particles
Colligative properties
A membrane that allows the passage of water (solvent) molecules through it in either direction but prevents the passage of larger solute molecules or ions
Semipermeable membrane
The diffusion of water, either from a dilute solution or from pure water, through a semipermeable membrane into a solution of higer concentration
A solution contains an excess of H⁺ ions
Arrhenius acid
A solution contains an excess of OH⁻ ions
Arrhenis base
A acid is a proton (H⁺) donor
Bronsted-Lowry acid
A base is a proton (H⁺) acceptor
Bronsted-Lowry base
The result of a protein combining with a polar water molecule to form a hydrated hydrogen ion, H₃O⁺
Hydronium ion
An electron-pair acceptor
Lewis acid
An electron-pair donor
Lewis base
A substance having properties of both an acid and a base
Substances whose aqueous solutions are conductors of electricity are called
Substances whose solutions are nonconductors are known as
The process by which the ions of a salt separate as the salt dissolves
Acids, bases, and salts are __________
The formation of ions; it occurs as a result of a chemical reaction of certain substances with water
Are essentially 100% ionized in solution
Strong electrolytes
Are much less ionized (based on comparing 0.1 M solutions)
Weak electrolytes
-log[H⁺] =
pH < 7.00
Acidic solution
pH = 7.00
Neutral solution
pH > 7.00
Basic solution
The power to which 10 must be raised to give that number
The negative logarithm of the H⁺ or H₃O⁺ concentration in moles per liter
The reaction of an acid and a base to form a salt and water
An ion in solution that does not undergo chemical change during a chemical reaction
Spectator ions
The process of measuring the volume of one reagent required to react with a measured mass or volume of another reagent
Compounds are written in their molecular, or formula expressions
Un-ionized equation
Compounds are written to show the form in which they are predominantly present; strong electrolytes as ions in solution; and nonelectrolytes, weak electrolytes, precipitates, and gases in their molecular (or un-ionized ) forms
Total ionic equation

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