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Glossary of Chemistry - Chapter 2

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Scientific Method
a logical approach to solving problems that lend themselves to investigation (observing/collecting data, formulating hypotheses, testing hypotheses, and formulating theories that are supported by data)
System
a specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been selected for study during an experiment or observation
hypothesis
testable statement
model
a physical object or explanation of how phenomena occur and how data or events are related
theory
broad generalization that explains a body of facts or phenomena
quantity
something that has magnitude, size, or amount
weight
a measure of the gravitational pull on matter
volume
the amount of space occupied by an object
density
the ration of mass to volume, or mass divided by volume
conversion factor
a ration derived from the equality between two different units that can be used to convert from one unit to the other
dimensional analysis
a mathematical technique that allows you to solve problems involving measurements
accuracy
the closeness of measurements to the correct or accepted value of the quanity measured
precision
refers to the closeness of a set of measurements of the same quantity made in the same way
percentage error
calculated by subracting the accepted value from the experimental value, dividing the difference by the accepted value, and then multiplying by 100
Significant Figures
consist of all the digits known with certainty plus one final digit, which is somewhat uncertain or is estimated
Scientific notation
numbers are written in the from Mx 10 ^ n, where the factor M is a number greater than or equal to 1 but less than 10 and n is a whole number
Directional proportional
characteristic of two quanitities by which dividing one by the other gives a constant value
inversely proportional
charactersitic of two quantities by which their product is a constant

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