## Glossary of Chemistry: Ch 10 and 11 Unit test

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- Pressure
- -Defined as the force per unit area on a surface

-caused by collisions

- Pascal
- -defined as the pressure exerted by a force of one newton acting on an area of one square meter

- newton
- the force that will increase the speed of a one kilogram mass by one meter per second each second it's applied

- millimeter of mercury
- -unit of pressure

-symbolized mm Hg

- barometer
- -device used to measure atmospheric pressure

- atmosphere of pressure
- (atm) defined as being exactly quivalent to 760mm Hg

- ideal gas
- an imaginary gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory

- kinetic-molecular theory (4 constants)
- -based on the idea that pa rticles of matter are always in motion

1) gases consist of large #s of tiny particles that are far apart

2) elastic collisions

3) constant, rapid, random motion

4) no forces of attraction or repulision (weak dispersion forces)

- real gas
- a gas that does not behave completely according to the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory

- fluid
- -gas particles glide easily past one another

-liquids and gases that flow

- elastic collision
- - collisions between gas particles and between particles and container walls are elastic collisions

- no net loss of kinetic energy

- effusion
- a process by which gas particles under pressure pass through a tiny opening

- ideal gas constant
- R= 0.0821 (L X atm / mol X k)

the constant R

- diffusion
- spontaneous mixing of the particles of two substances caused by their random motion

- ideal gas law
- PV= nRT

R= 0.0821 L atm/ mol K

the mathematical relationship of P,V,T and mols

- standard molar volume of a gas
- the volume ocupied by one mole of a gas at STP

found to be 22.4 L

- Avogadro's Law
- states that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules

- Guy-Lussac's law of combining volumes of gases
- states that at cosntant temperature and pressure, the volumes of gaseous reactants and products can be expressed as ratios of small whole numbers

- Graham's law of effusion
- R1 radical MW2

R2= radical MW1

- Boyle's law
- V1P1=V2P2

(n,T)

- Charle's law
- V1T2=V2T1

- vaporization
- the process by which a liquid or solid changes to a gas

- expansion
- process of diffusion to where a gas fills its container

- mm --> atm
- divide by 760

- C --> K
- + 273

- standard temperature and pressure
- scientists have agreed on standard conditions of 1 atm pressure and 0 degrees C

STP

- absolute zero
- - 273. 15 degrees C

given a value of zero on the kelvin scale

- gas laws
- simple mathematical relationships between the volume, temperature, pressure, and quantity of a gas

- partial pressure
- preesure of each gas in a mixture

- Guy- Lussac's law
- T1-2=T2-1

- Dalton's law of partial pressures
- Pt= p1 + p2 +p3

- combined gas law
- V1P1T2=V2P2T1

(n)