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Glossary of Chemistry-Matter and Energy

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A natural science; the study of matter, its composition, properties, and changes it undergoes
Chemistry
A way of solving problems or answering questions
Scientific Method
A thoroughly tested model that explains why things behave a certain way; can’t be proven
Theory-
Anything that takes up space and has mass
Matter
Smallest particle of matter that retains its unique properties
Element
Smallest particle of matter that retains its unique set of characteristics and is made of elements, in a set ratio; ionic or covalent
Compound
Two or more atoms bonded together with fixed mass %, same or different
Molecule
All the same composition throughout
Substance
More than one kind of matter; at least 2 substances; each part keeps properties
Mixture
Same composition throughout
Homogeneous
Different composition in different places
Heterogeneous
Different “forms” of the element
Allotropes
Matter that can’t flow and has a definite volume
Solid
Definite volume, but takes the shape of its container (flows)
Liquid
A substance without definite volume or shape and can flow
Gas
Heated substance until ionization
Plasma
Very cold (4K); many atoms act like one atom
Bose-Einstein Condensate
Can be studied without a change in structure or composition
Physical Properties
Molecules or ions undergo a change in structure or composition
Chemical Properties
A property that does not change with the amount of substance
Intensive Properties
A property that changes with the amount of substance
Extensive Properties
A change that changes appearances, without changing the composition
Physical Change
A change where a new form of matter is formed; not easily reversed
Chemical Change
Has 2 things: number and scale (unit)
Measurement
Based on metric system and units derived from metric system
International System
Mass divided by volume
Density
Total kinetic energy of molecules
Heat
Average kinetic energy of molecules
Temperature
Amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1gram of a substance in a specific physical state by 1ºC
Specific Heat Capacity
Heat is given off
Exothermic
heat is absorbed
endothermic
Study of Compounds with carbon-carbon bonds
Organic Chem.
Study of compounds without carbon
Inorganic Chem.
study of chemicals of life
Biochemistry
Theoretical study
Physical Chem.
With money or a task involved
(a study)
Applied Chem.
the study with Money, composition
Analytical
how many DiAtomic elements?
7
Indications of a chemical change
energy released or absorbed (heat)
Color change
Gas released
Light given off
Precipitate- solid that evaporates from solution

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