Glossary of Chemistry-Families of Elements-9th grade

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Alkali Metals
Group IA
1. Each has 1 e-
2.Shiny Metals-soft, malleable, ductile
3 React very easily with air- tarnish quickly
4. React violently with water
5. Good Conductors of electriciy and heat.
Alkaline Earth Metals
Group IIA
1. Each has 2 e-
2. Very similar to alkali metals(IA) only these metals do not react as violently with air and water.
3. Not found in the free state in nature (compound
4. Usually form (2+) ions.
Transition Elements
1. Transition elements are metals.
2. Good conductors of heat and electricity
3.Metals have 1,2, or 3 e-
4. Precious metals Au, Ag and Pt are scarce, unreactive, and soft.
5. Hg is the only metal that is a liquid at room Temperature.
Boron Family
Group III A
1.Each member has 3e- on the outer shell
2. Boron is a metalloid
3. Al, Ga, In, and Ti are metals
4. Usually form(3+) ions.
Carbon Family
Group IV A
1.Each member has 4e- on the outer shell
2.C is a non-metal and usually forms covalent bonds
3.Si and Ge are metalloids
4.Sn andPb are metals.
Nitrogen Famil
Group V A
1.Each has 5e-
2. Not very reactive
3. Usually bond covalently
Oxygen Family
Group VI A
1. Each has 6e-
2. Found in nature in a free state and chemically combined.
3. Usually bond covalently
Halogen Family
Group VII A
1.Each has 7e-
2. Halogen elements combine with metals to form salt.
3. Usually form ionic bonds-can form covalent bonds because halogens exist as diatomic molecules.
4. All halogens are poisonous and burn the skin.
Noble or Inert gases
Group VIII A
1. Each has 8e-/Full outer shell.
2.Very Stable
3. Not very reactive
What is the charge of a neutral atom?
no charge
The number which determines which element you have is
atomic number
Horizontal rows on periodic chart
Atoms which lose electrons to other atoms are
positive ions
an inert element
molecule of an element
O Br Cl
diatomic molecules
smallest part of an element that still has the properties of the last element
molecule compound
ionic bond is formed from
the attraction between oppositely charged atoms
atomic mass
protons +neutrons
atomic mass of a neutron
1 a.m.u.
atomic mass of mercury
The groups/families of elements in the periodic table have
the same number of electrons in their outer shell
covalent bond
a bond formed from the sharing of electrons between atoms
Electronegativity is
how strongly an atom is attracted to other electrons
The octet rules says
all elements are more stable with 8 electrons in their outer shell with the exception of hydrogen and helium
formula for Clacium bromide
potassium chloride
electrons in the outermost shell of an atom
valence electrons
substances you begin with in a chemical reaction
when a chemical reation is occurring
there are bubles, change in color, temp. change, and a precipitate forms
when the number of electrons change in an element you have an
valence electrons are important because
they participate in bonding with other atoms
the average of the mass numbers of an elements isotopes
atomic mass

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