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Glossary of Chem honors Chapter 5 Vocab

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Antoine Lavoisier
"Father of Chemistery" Established a common naming system of compounds and elements, first to organize elements:Gases Nonmetlas, metals, and "Earths"- elements that could not be chemically seperted at the time
Henry Mosely
Oraganized elements in order of increasing atomic numbs
Periodic law
by henry mosely
Physical and Chemical properties of elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers
S-Block
Alkali, Alkaline-earth metals
P-Block
Halogens-make salts- reactive
Atomic radius
-1/2 the distance between the nuclei of 2 covalently bonded atoms
Decreases across
Increases Down
Cation
Positive ion- smaller atomic radius- less pull from the nucleus and more repulsion between the greater number of electrons
Anion
Negative ion- bigger with less pull
Ionization energy
Amount of Energy required to remove an e from a neutral atom in its gaseous state
Increases up, across
Decreases down
Electron Affinity
Amount of energy released when an e is added to a gaseous atom in its neutral state
Increase across a period, decrease down a group
Electronegativity
the measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons
F-4.0-Highest
Increase across a period, decrease down a group
Effective nuclear charge vs nuclear charge
effective- felt by outer electron
normal- number of protons
number of shielding electrons
e present inbetween the nucleus and the valence shell electrons
D-block
Exceptions-Ni [Ar]3d84s2
Pd [Kr]4d105s0
Pt [Xe] 4f145d96s1
metals with typical metallic properties, transistion elements
less reactive, some even unreactive (gold)
main group elements
p block, s block

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