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Glossary of Chem chapter 13

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suspension
a mixture that appears uniform while being stirred but separates into different phases when agitation ceases
colloid
a mixture in which small particles are suspended throughout a slovent
solvent
the substance in which the solute dissolves to make the solution
solute
the substance dissolved in a solution
aqueous
describing a solution in which the solvent is in water
concentration
the quantity of solute in a specific quantity of solvent or solution
molarity
a concentration unit
moles of solute over liters of solution
chromatography
a technique for seperating components of a mixture by placing the mixture in a mobile phase that is passed over a stationary phase
distillation
a separation process in which a liquid component is evaporated from a solution and the vapor is condensed to liquid, usually for the purpose of purification
solubility
the maximum amount of a chemical taht will dissolve in a given quantity of a solvent at a specified temperature while the solution is in contact with undisolved solute
soluble
can be dissolved in a particular solvent
insoluble
does not dissolve appreciably in a particular solvent
saturated
containing the amount of solute specified by the solubility
Henry's law
the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas on the surface of the liquid
supersaturated
containing more than the amount of solute specified by the solubility at a given set of conditions
miscible
indicates ;iquids that will dissolve in each other
immiscible
indicates liquids that will not dissolve appreciably in each other
conductivity
the ability to conduct an electric current
electrolyte
a substance that, when dissolved in a solvent, increases the solvent's conductivity
nonelectrolyte
a substance that, when dissolved in a solvent, does not enhance that solvent's conductivity
hydronium bond
a hydrogen ion covalently bonded to a water molecule, written as H3O+
dissociation
a process in which a compound seperates into fragments, such as simpler molecules, atoms, radicals, or ions
hydration
the process by which water molecules surround each ion as it moves into solution
boiling-point elevation
the difference between the boiling point of a solution and that of the pure solvent
freezing-point depression
the difference between the freezing point of a pure solvent and that if a solution
colligative property
a physical property that is dependent on the numbe of solute particles present rather than on the identity if those particles
emulsion
colloidal-size droplets of one liquid suspended in another liquid
emulsifier
a substance that stabilizies an emulsion by forming a layer between two immiscible liquids
soap
a sodium or potassium of a long-chain fatty acid
micelle
a spherical arrangement formed by molecules of fat or fatlike substances in an aqueous enviorment
surfactant
a class of salts, valued for their cleansing properties, whose anions possess a negatively charged "head" and a long nonpolar "trial"
detergent
a surfactant other than a soap

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