Glossary of Chem Regents

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absolute zero
the lowest possible temp, written as 0K or -273.15 C
the closeness of a measurement to an accepted value
Acid Ionization Constant
a constant whose value indicates the relative strength of an acid in aqueous solution.
activated complex
the intermediate state between reactants and products in a chemical reaction; the peak of potiental energy diagram
activation energy
the minimum energy needed to initiate a reaction
addition polymerization
the joining of unsaturated monomers by a series of addition reactions
an organic compound containing a hydroxyl (-OH)group
alkali metal
any group 1 element excluding hydrogen H
alkaline earth element
any group 2 element
alkyl group
an open chained hydrocarbon less one hydrogen atom
methyl group
ethyl group
a specific form of an element that can exist in more than one form; graphite and diamond are allotropes pf the element carbon
a solid metallic solution
alpha decay
the radioactive process in which an alpha particle is emitted
amino acid
an organic compound containing at least one amino group and one carboxyl group
amino group
an ammonia group less than one hydrogen atom -NH2
pertaining to a substance that can act as a Bronsted-Lowry acid or base by donating and accepting H+ ions
pertaining to a compound from which the water of crystallization has been removed
the electrode at which oxidation occurs
pertaining to a solution in which water is a solvent
aromatic hydrocarbon
any rong hydrocarbon whose electronic is related to that of benzene
Arrhenius Acid
any substance that releases H+ ion in water
Arrhenius Base
any substance that releases OH- ions in water
the basic unit of an element
atomic mass
the weighted average of the masses of the isotopes of an element
atomic mass unit
one twelfth the mass of a carbon-12 atom
atomic number
the # of protons in the nucleus of an atom the atomic number defines the element
atomic radius
a calculated estimate of the size of an atom
avogadro's hypothesis
equal volumes of gases, measured at the same temp and pressure, contain equal numbers of particles
avogadro's #
the # of particles in 1 mole; 6.02 x 10 [23]
base ionization constant
a constant whose value indicates the relative strength of a base in aqueous solution
a commercial voltaic cell
C6H6; the parent hydrocarbon of all aromatic compounds
beta decay
the radioactive process in which a beta particle is emitted
beta (-) particle
an electron
beta (+) particle
a positron
binary compound
a compound containing two elements
binding energy
the energy realeased when a nucleus is assembled from its nucleons
the transition of a liquid to a gas; boiling occurs when a vapor pressure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure above the liquid
boiling point
the temp at which boiling occurs; the temp at which the liquid and vapor phases of a substance are in equilibrium
boiling point elevation
the increase in the boiling point of a solvent due to the presence of solute particles
bond energy
the energy needed to break a chemical bond
Boyle's Law
a constant temp and mass, the pressure of an ideal gas is inversely proportional to its volume; P1V1=P2V2
breeder reactor
a fission reactor that generates its own nuclear fuel
bright line spectrum
the lines of visible light emitted by elements as electrons fall to lower energy levels
Bronsted Lowry acid
a substance that can donate H+ ions.
Bronsted Lowry base
a substance that can accept H+ ions
a substance that speeds a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy of the reaction
the electrode at which reduction occurs
chain reaction
a chemical or nuclear reaction in which one step supplies energy or reactants for the next step
charle's law
at constant pressure and mass, the volume of an ideal gas is directly proportional to Kelvin temp; v/t=v/t
chemical bond
the stabilizing of two atoms by sharing or transferring electrons
chemical energy
the part of internal energy that is associated with te bonds and intermolecular attractions of substances
chemical equation
a shorthand listing of reactants, products and molar quantities in a chemical reaction
chemical equilibrium
the state in which the forward and reverse reactions are equal
chemical property
a property that describes the composition and reactivity of a substance
chemical reaction
a process in which one or more substances are converted into other substances
the process in which the components of certain mixtures are separated because of their differences in solubility
a # in a chemical equation that indicates how many particles of a reactant or product are required or formed in the reaction.
colligative property
a property that depends in the # of particles present rather than a type of a particle
combined gas law
at constant mass, the product of the pressure and volume divided by the kelvin temp is a constant PV/T=PT/T
common ion effect
an equilibrium shift caused by the addition of an ion present in a reaction
a combination of two or more elements with a fixed composition by mass
pertaining to a solution that contains relatively large quantity of solute
the "strength" of a solution; the of solute relative to the quantity of solvent
the change of gas to liquid
condensation polymerization
the joining of monomers by a series of dehydration reactions
conjugate acid-base pair
two particles that differ by a single H+
constitutional isomers
isomers that differ because their atoms are connected in different orders
control rod
a part of a fission reactor that controls the rate of fission by absorbing neutrons
coordinate covalent bond
a single covalent bond in which the pair of electrons is supplied by one atom
covalent atomic radius
the effective distance from the nucleus of a covalently bonded atom to its valence level
covalent bond
a chemical bond formed by the sharing of electrons
the process of breaking large hydrocarbon molecules into smaller ones in order to increase the yield of compounds such as gasoline
the process in which a solute separates from its solution
a reaction in which a compound forms two or more simpler substances
the direct transition from gas to solid
diatomic molecules
a neutral particle consisting of two atoms
ex Br2 and CO
the movement of one subtance to another
peratining to a solution that contains a relatively small quantity of solute; to reduce a concentration of a solution by adding solvent
an unsymmetrical charge distribution in a nuetral molecule
dipole-dipole attraction
the attractive force between two opposite charged dipoles of nieghboring polar molecules
dipersion forces
the attractive forces between nieghboring nonpolar molecules
the separation of an ionic compound in solution into positive and negative ions
the simultaneous boiling of a liquid and condensation of its vapor
the property of a substance that allows it to be drawn into a wire; metallic substances possess ductility
dynamic equilibrium
the state in which the rates of opposing processes are equal
the escape pf gas from a small porous opening
electrochemical cell
a voltaic cell or an electrolytic cell
a conductor in an chemical or electrolytic cell that serves as a site of oxidation or reduction
a nonspontaneous redox reaction driven by an external source of electricity
a substance whose aqueous solution conducts electricity
electrolytic cell
a device for carrying out electrolysis
the elementary unit or negative (-) charge
electron affinity
the energy change that occurs when an atom or ion gains an electron
the measure of an atom's attraction for a bonded pair of electrons
the use of an electric current to deposit a layer of metal on a negatively charged object
a substance of all whose atoms have the same atomic #
elementary reactions
a series of simpler reactions that are "building blocks" of a more complex reaction
empirical formula
a formula in which the elements are present in the smallest whole-number ratio; NO2 is that but C2H4 is not
endothermic reactions
a reaction that absorbs energy
a quantity related to an object's capacity to do work
enthalpy change
the heat energy absorbed or released by a system
the measure of randomness or disorder of a system
the organic product of esterification
the reaction of an acid with an alcohol to produce an ester and water
the surface transitition of liquid to gas
excited state
a condition in which one or more electrons in an atom are no longer in the lowest possible energy state
exothermic reaction
a reaction that releases energy
the (anaerobic) oxidation of a sugar such as glucose to produce ethanol and carbon dioxide; the reaction is catalyzed bby enyzmes
the process in which a precipitate is recovered from a mixture
first ionization energy
the quantity of energy needed to remove the most loosely held electron from an isolated neutral atom
first law of thermodynamics
energy is conserved in any process
a nuclear reaction in ehich a heavy nuclide splits to form lighter nuclides and energy
the transition from liquid to solid
freezing point
the temp at which freezing occurs
a synonym for melting; also a nuclear process in which light nuclides join to form heavier nuclides and produce radiant energy
the phase in which matter neither has definite shape nor volume
graham's law of effusion
at constant temp and pressure, the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molar mass or density
ground state
the electron configuration of an atom in the lowest energy state
Haber process
the commercial procedure by which ammonia is produced from nitrogen and hydrogen
half cell
the part of an electrochemical cell in which oxidation or reduction occurs
any element in group 17
the energy transferred between two objects when they are at different temps
heat of fusion
heat absorbed when a unit mass of solid changes to liquid at its melting point
heat of reaction
the heat absorbed or released as a result of a chemical reaction
heat of vaporization
the hear absorbed when a unit mass of liquid changes to gas at its melting point
Hess's Law
the heat absorbed or released in a given reaction can be expressed as the sum of the heats associated with other reactions if these reactions can be "added" to produce the original reaction.
heterogenous mixture
a nonuniform mixture
homogenous mixture
a mixture with uniform distribution of particles
homologous series
group of organic compounds with related structures and properties; each successive member of the series differs from the one before it by a specific number of carbon and hydrogen atoms
hybrid orbital
an orbital formed by the "mixing" of individual atomic orbitals
the association of water molecules with an ion or another molecule
hydrogen bond
an unusually strong molecular attraction that results when hydrogen is bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom
a reaction in which a water molecule breaks a chemical bond
ideal gas
a model of gas in which the particles have no volume, do not attract or repel each other, and collide without loss of energy
a substance that undergoes a color change to signal a change in chemical conditions
inert gas
any element in group 18
a particle in which the numbers of protons and electrons are not equal
ionic bond
the electrostatic attraction of positive and negative ions in an ionic compound
ionic compound
substance whose particles consist of negative and positive ions.

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