Glossary of Chem Midyear

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a quantity is something that has magnitude size or amount
a measurement of the gravitational pull on matter
derived si units
combinations of si base units afrom derived si units
the amount of space occupied by an object
the ratio of mass to volume
conversion factor
the ratio derived from the equality between two different units that can be used to convert from one unit to an other
accuracy refers to the closeness of measurements to the correct or accepted value of the quantity measured
precision refers to the closeness of a set of measurements of the same quantity
percent error
calculated by subtracting the accepted value from the experimental value and then dividing nthe difference by the accepted value and then multiplying by 100
significant figures
sig figs in a measurement consist of all the digits known w/ certainty plus one final digit which is somewhat uncertain or is an estimate
the vertical columns of the periodic table
the horizontal rows of elements in the periodic table
a metal is an element that is a good conductor of heat and electricity
a nonmetal is an element that is a poor conductor of heat and electricity
an element that has some characteristics of metals and some characteristics of non-metals
the study of the transfers of energy as heat that accompany chemical reactions and physical changes
the tool that measures the energy absorbed or released as heat in a chemical or phys change
a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in ia sample of matter
is the si unit for heat
energy transferred between samples of matter because of a difference in their temperature
specific heat
the amount of energy required to raise the temp of one gram of a substance by 1 degree celcius
heat of reaction
the quantity of energy released or absorbed as heat during chemical reactions
Atomici #
the # of protons in the nucleus of each atom of that element
atoms of the same element that have different masses
Mass #
the total # of protons and nutrons in the nucleus of an isotope
a gneral term for any isotope of any element
atomic mass unit
1 amu is exactly 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom
average atomic mass
the weighted average of the atomic masses of the naturally occuring isotopes of an element
the amount of a substance that contains as many particles as there are atoms in 12 g of carbon 12
avegardos #
the # of particles in one mole of a pure substance
mollar mass
the mass of one mole of a pure substance
law of conservation of mass
states that mass is neither destroyed nor created during ordinary chem. reactions
law of definite proportions
the fact that a chemical compound contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass regardless of the size of the sample or source of the compound
law of multiple proportions
if 2 or more different cmpds are composed fo the same 2 elmts then the ratio of masses of the 2nd elmt combined w/ a cetain mass of the 1st elmt is always a ratio of small whole #s
the smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical props of that element
nuclear forces
short-range proton-proton, proton-neutron,and neutron-neutron forces, they hold the nuclear particles together
electromagnetic radiation
a form of energy that exhibits wavelike behaviors as it travels through space
electromagnetic spectrum
all forms of electromagnetic radiation form the electromagnetic spectrum
the difference between corresponding points on adjacent waves
photo electric effect
refers to the emission of electrons from a metal when light shines on the metal
the minimum quantity of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom
particle of electromagnetic radiation having zero mass and carrying a quantum of energy
ground state
the lowest energy state of an atom
excited state
is a state in which an atom has a higher potential energy than it has in its ground state
line-emission spectrum
when a narrow beam of the emitted light was shined through a prism, it was separated into a series of specific frequencies of visible light
contiunuous spectrum
the emissions of a contiunous range of frequencies of electrom agnetic radiation

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