Glossary of Chem Honors Semester One Final- Unit 3

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percent composition
the percent by mass of each element in a compound
empirical formula
the formula with the smallest whole-number ratio of the elements
molecular formula
a formula which specifies the actual number of eatoms of each element in one molecule or formula uni of the substance
formula unit
the simplest ratio of the ions represented in an ionic compound
monatomic ion
a one atom ion
oxidation number
the charge of a monatomic ion
polyatomic ions
ions made up of more than one atom
a polyatomic ion composed of an element, usually a nonmetal, bonded to one or more oxygen atoms
any acid that contains hydrogen and an oxyanion
chemical reaction
the process by which the atoms of one or more substances are rearranged to from different substances
the starting substances in a reaction
the substances formed during the reactions
chemical equation
a statement that uses chemical formulas to show the identities and relative amounts of the substances involed in a chemical reaction
the number written front of a reactant or product in a chemical equation
the study of quantitative relationships between amounts of reactants used and products formed by a chemical equation
mole ratio
a ratio between the numbers of moles of any two substances
limiting reactant
a reactant that limits the extent of the reaction and determines the amount of the product
excess reactants
the leftover reactants
theoretical yield
the maximum amount of product that can be produced from a given amount of reactant
actual yield
the amount of product actually produced when the chemical reaction is carried out in an experiment
percent yield
the ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield expressed as a percent

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