Glossary of Chem Ch 8 pg 244-259
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- Calculation of reaction rate
- Delta C Ct-Co
Delta T Delta T
- Spontaneous processes
- processes that take place naturally with no apparent cause of stimulus
- processes that give up energy. Energy out.
- processes that gain energy. Energy in.
- a measurement or indication of the disorder or randomness of a system. The more disorderly a system is, the higher its entropy.
- Three ways energy and entropy influence the spontaneity of processes
- 1. A process will always be spontanious if the energy decreases and the entropy increases
2. when a spontanious process is accompanied by an energy increse, a large entropy increase must also occur.
3. a spontanious process accompanied by an entropy decrease must also be accompanied by a compensating energy decrease.
- stable substance:
- a substance that does not undergo spontanious changes under the surrounding conditions.
- reaction rate:
- The speed of a reaction
- Reaction Mechanism
- the explanation of how a reaction occurs
- Reaction Mechanisms are based on the following three assumptions
- 1. reactant particles must collide with one another in order for a reaction to occur.
2. particles must collide with at least a certain minimum total amount of energy if the collision is to result in a reaction.
3. In some cases, colliding reactants must be orientated in a specific way if a reaction is to occur.
- internal energy
- The energy associated with vibrations within molecules.
- Activation Energy
- Energy needed to start some spontanious processes. Once started, the process continues without further stimulus or energy from an outside sorce.
- Effective collisions
- collisions with the capability to cause a reaction to occur
- a substances that changes (usually increases) reaction rates without being used up in the reaction
- A substances that decreaes reaction rate.
- Homogenious Catalyst
- A catalytic substance that is distributed uniformly throughout the reaction mixture.
- Heterogenious or surface catalyst
- a catalytic substance normally used in the form of a solid with a large surface area on which reactions take place.
- state of equilibrium
- a condition in a reaction system when the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal
- Equilibrium Concentrations
- the unchanging concentrations of reactants and products in a reaction system that is in a state of equilibrium.
- position of equalibrium
- an indication of the relative amounts of reactants and products present at equilibrium
- Equilibrium expression
- An equation relating the equilibrium constant and reactant and product equilibrium concentrations
- Equilibrium constant
- A numerical relationship between reactant and product concentrations in a reaction at equilibrium
- Le Chateliers principle
- The position of an equilibrium shifts in responce to changes made in factors of the equilibrium.
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