Glossary of Chem 30 Study Cards for The DIP
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- cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules (e.g. kerogens or heavy hydrocarbons) are broken down into simpler molecules (e.g. light hydrocarbons) by the breaking of carbon-carbon bonds in the precursors. The rate of cracking and the end products are strongly dependent on the temperature and presence of any catalysts. Cracking is also known as pyrolysis.
- A catalyst decreases the activation energy of a chemical reaction. Catalysts participate in reactions but are neither reactants nor products of the reaction they catalyze.
- Intermolecular forces are electromagnetic forces that act between molecules
- Intramolecular in chemistry describes a process or characteristic limited within the structure of a single molecule; a property or phenomenon limited to the extent of a single molecule.
- NUCLEAR FUSION
- nuclear fusion is the process by which multiple nuclei join together to form a heavier nucleus. It is accompanied by the release or absorption of energy depending on the masses of the nuclei involved. Iron and nickel nuclei have the largest binding energies per nucleon of all nuclei and therefore are the most stable. The fusion of two nuclei lighter than iron or nickel generally releases energy while the fusion of nuclei heavier than iron or nickel absorbs energy; vice-versa for the reverse process, nuclear fission.
- NUCLEAR FISION
- Nuclear fission—also known as atomic fission—is a process in nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry in which the nucleus of an atom splits into two or more smaller nuclei as fission products, and usually some by-product particles. Hence, fission is a form of elemental transmutation. The by-products include free neutrons, photons usually in the form gamma rays, and other nuclear fragments such as beta particles and alpha particles. Fission of heavy elements is an exothermic reaction and can release substantial amounts of useful energy both as gamma rays and as kinetic energy of the fragments (heating the bulk material where fission takes place).
- Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the production of heat or both heat and light in the form of either a glow or flames.
In a complete combustion reaction, a compound reacts with an oxidizing element, and the products are compounds of each element in the fuel with the oxidizing element.
- In thermodynamics and molecular chemistry, the enthalpy or heat content (denoted as Δ or ΔH, or rarely as χ) is a quotient or description of thermodynamic potential of a system, which can be used to calculate the "useful" work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system under constant conditions.
- LAWS OF THERMAL DYNAMICS
- In any process, the total energy of the universe remains constant.
There is no process that, operating in a cycle, produces no other effect than the subtraction of a positive amount of heat from a reservoir and the production of an equal amount of work.
As temperature approaches absolute zero, the entropy of a system approaches a constant.
First law: "You can't win."
Second law: "You can't break even."
Third law: "You can't quit."
- In thermodynamics, the word exothermic describes a process or reaction that releases energy in the form of heat. Its etymology stems from the Greek prefix ex-, meaning “outside” and the Greek word thermein, meaning “to heat”. The opposite of an exothermic process is an endothermic process, one that absorbs energy in the form of heat.
- In thermodynamics, the word endothermic describes a process or reaction that absorbs energy in the form of heat. Its etymology stems from the Greek prefix endo-, meaning “inside” and the Greek suffix –thermic, meaning “to heat”.
- KENETIC ENERGY
- Kinetic energy is the energy by virtue of the motion of an object. It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body from rest to its current velocity. Having gained this energy during its acceleration, the body maintains this kinetic energy unless its speed changes. Negative work of the same magnitude would be required to return the body to a state of rest from that velocity.
- POTENTIAL ENERGY
- Potential energy is the energy that is by virtue of the relative positions (configurations) of the objects within a physical system. This form of energy has the potential to change the state of other objects around it, for example, the configuration or motion.
- HESS'S LAW
- Hess' Law is a law of physical chemistry named for Germain Hess's expansion of the Hess Cycle, used to predict the enthalpy change and conservation of energy (denoted as state function ΔH) regardless of the path through which, it is to be determined.
- HESS'S EQUATION
- Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which complexes, molecules, or salts separate or split into smaller molecules, ions, or radicals, usually in a reversible manner. Dissociation is the opposite of association and recombination.
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