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Glossary of Chem 14D Final Part I

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agonist
a drug that has a strong affinity for a receptor and triggers the receptor when bound.
antagonist
a drug that has a strong affinity for a receptor and little or no intrinsic activity when bound.
antimetabolite
a drug that exerts its action against the normal metabolic processes of an organism, such as dna replication.
drug
a chemical introduced into a biological system that alters, inhibits, or supplements a biological process.
enzyme
a protein that performs chemical reactions, or assists in reactions, on other molecules
inhibitor
a drug that STOPS the functioning of an ENZYME or receptor.
prodrug
a substance that has no drug action until metabolizes.
receptor
a biological structure that, upon binding to substrate, releases a signal that starts a biological process.
SAR
structure-activity relationship
suicide inhibitor
a drug that inhibits a biological process by covalently bonding to an enzyme.
transition state analog
binds and blocks because it resembles transition state of reaction normally induced by enxyme, but is bound more strongly than natural substrate.
sulfa drugs
antiobiotics that inhibit enzyme necessary for folic acid synthesis (prevents bacterial growth).
penicillins
antibiotics that inhibit enzyme necessary for bacterial cell wall synthesis (suicide inhibitors).
intercalation
noncovalent insertion of drug molecule between dna base pairs. may lead to DNA damage or distorted structure.(ex: quinine)
mutagen/carcinogen/teratogen
causes dna mutations/causes cancer/causes fetal abnormalities

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