Glossary of Chem 105 Test 1 Review
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- States of Matter
- Solid, Liquid, Gas
- Intermolecular Forces required to create a solid: strong or weak?
- Intermolecular Forces required for a gas: strong or weak?
- The temperature at which liquid and solid are at equilibrium.
- Melting Point (or Freezing Point)
0° C/273.15 Kelvin
- The temperature at which liquid and gas are at equilibrium.
- Boiling Point
- Enthalpy of Liquid to Solid or Gas to Liquid phase change:
- negative (-ΔΤ)
- Enthalpy of Solid to Liquid or Liquid to Gas phase change:
- positive (+ΔΤ)
- Enthalpy of Vaporization
- Amount of energy required to completely convert liquid at boiling point to gas at boiling point. There is no temperature change to the substance during vaporization.
- Enthalpy of Fusion
- Amount of energy required to completely convert a substance from a solid at melting point to a liquid at melting point. There is no temperature change during fusion.
- Enthalpy of Fusion of Water
- 79.7 cal/g
- Enthalpy of Vaporization of water
- Specific Heat of water
- 1.00 cal/g°C
- Formula for calculating Heat in a reaction:
- Heat = mass * ΔΤ * Sp.Heat (cal/g°C)
[ΔT = T2 - T1]
- Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases
- -There are no attractive forces between particles of gas
-Space between gas particles is very large
-The average kinetic energy of gas particles is proportional to the Kelvin temperature of the gas.
-Gases experience elastic collisions with each other and the walls of the container
- Ideal Gases
- gases that obey the kinetic molecular theory
- Force per unit area pushing against a surface (P = F/A)
- Units of Pressure
- Atmosphere (atm)
Millimeters of Mercury (mmHg or Torr)
Pounds per Square Inch (psi)
1 atm = 760 mmHg/Torr = 14.7 psi = 101,325 Pa
- Pressure to Volume
- Boyle's Law
Pressue and Volume are inversely proportional (P α 1/V)
PV = k (constant) or P1V1 = P2V2
- Volume and Temperature
- Charles' Law
Volume is Directly proportional to Temperature (VαT)
V/T = k (constant) or V1/T1 = V2/T2
- Pressure and Temperature
- Gay-Lusacs Law
Pressure is directly proportional to Temperature (P α T)
P/T = k (constant) or P1/T1 = P2/T2
- Combined Gas Law
- PV/T = k (constant)
P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2
Temperature MUST be in Kelvin!
- moles and Volume
- Avagadro's Law
Volume is directly proportional to moles of Gas (V α n)
V/n = k(constant) or V1/n1 = V2/n2
(n = # of moles of gas)
- Ideal Gas Constant (R) using atm
- R = 0.0821 L·atm/mol·K
- Ideal Gas Constant (R) using mmHg
- R = 62.4 L·mmHg/mol·K
- Ideal Gas Law
- PV = nRT
- Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure
- the total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the components of the mixture.
Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3 + ...
P(total)V = n(total)RT
- Standard Temperature and Pressure
0°C (273.15 K) and 1atm (760 mmHg)
- Standard Molecular Volume
- Volume of one mole of gas at STP
22.4L for ANY gas
- -Polar molecules are attracted to one another
-strength of the attraction is approx. 1 kcal/mol (1-2% of covalent bond strength)
-tend to be liquid or solid at room temperature
- Hydrogen Bonding
- -special kind of dipole-dipole bond
-only present when there is a lone pair of Oxygen, Nitrogen, or Flourine present and a Hydrogen bonded to another O, N or F
-stronger than dipole-dipole (1 kcal/mol)
- London Dispersion Forces
- -all molecules have this (temporary dipoles)
-results from a temporary polarity caused by the random motion of electrons in a molecule
-STRONGEST force experienced by NON-POLAR molecules, weakest of intermolecular forces
- Intermolecular Forces in order or strength
- Vapor Pressure
- The partial pressue of gas molecules in equilibrium with liquid. Increases with temperature.
- Relation of Boiling Point to pressure
- Directly proportional. BP decreases with lower pressure, increases with higher pressure.
- Heterogenous Mixture
- A non-uniform mixture with regions of different composition
-murky or opaque
-particles often settle or can be filtered
-ex. orange juice, house paint
- Homogenous Mixture
- Uniform mixture throughout
-Homogenous solution: particles are small, solution is transparent
-Homogenous colloids: larger particles, murky or opaque
- The dissolved substance
- The substance (usually liquid) the solute is disolved in.
- Solute + Solvent
- maximum amount of a substance that will dissolve in a solvent at a given temperature.
- How a solid dissolves in a liquid.
- Solvation / Hydration
- the solvent is water
- Like dissolves Like
- Liquids with similar intermolecular forces will form solutions. Polar compounds dissolve easily in water. Non-polar compounds dissolve in non-polar liquids.
- LeChatlier's Principle
- increase in stress on one end of a system in equilibrium will result in a shift to the side of the system with fewer molecules to relieve the stress and restore equilibrium.
- Solubility and Pressure
- Solubility is Directly proportional to Pressure.
C/P = k (constant) or C1/P1 = C2/P2
(C = solubility)
- Formula for calculating Molarity of a solution:
- M = moles of solute/Liters of solution
- Formula for calculating Weight/Volume %
- W/V% = g of solute/mL of solution x 100
- Formula for calculating Volume/Volume %
- V/V% = volume of solute/volume of solution x 100
(units must be the same!)
- Formula for calculating Parts per Million by weight.
- PPM = Mass of solute/mass of solution x 10E6
(units must be the same)
- Formular for calculating parts per million by volume
- PPM = volume of solute/volume of solution x 10E6
(units must be the same)
- Formula for Dilution
- M1 x V1 = M2 x V2
M1 = original concentration (Molarity)
V1 = initial volume
M2 = desired concentration (Molarity)
V2 = final total volume
V2-V1 = amount of solvent required for dilution
- Solid Hydrates
- ionic compounds that hold water molecules "trapped" in their lattice.
ex. Epsom Salt, MgSO4 · 7H2O
(each molecule of MgSO4 holds 7 water molecules)
- An substance that conducts electricity when dissolved in water.
ionic salts, strong acids & bases
weak acids & bases, non ionic compounds, substances that don't dissolve completely in water
non-soluable ionic compounds
- Equivalents of Electrolytes
- Units used to describe the amount of ions in bodily fluid.
Eq = molar mass of ions(g)/# of charges on the ion
mEq = 1 Eq/1000
- The colligative propertives of a solution depend on the ______ rather than the identity of the solute.
- The presence of a solute _______ the vapor pressure of the solution.
Fewer solvent molecules can escape from the solution surface into the gas phase.
- The presence of a solute _______ the Boiling Point of the solution.
- The presence of a solute ______ the freezing point of a solution.
- What determines which solutes will have the greatest effect on the colligative properties of the solution?
- Number of particles they dissolve into. The more particles, the higher the HP/lower the MP.
- In osmosis, solvent particles always pass from an area of ______ concentration to an area of _______ concentration?
- Lower to Greater
- The sum of all the molarities in the solution.
0.10 NaCl = 0.20 osmol
- What is the auto-ionization of water?
- Liquid water dissociates VERY SLIGHTLY into [H30+] and [OH-] ions.
H2O(l) + H2O(l) <---> H3O+(aq) + OH-(aq)
Forward reaction IS NOT favored.
- Equilibrium Constant of Water
- Kw = [H3O+] x [OH-] = 1.00 x 10E-14
- Any substance that produces H3O+ ions when added to water.
- How to calculate concentration of an acid from the pH.
- H3O+ = 10E-pH
- How to calculate pH from the contration of the acid.
- pH = -log[H3O+]
- Sig Figs for pH
- Count the number of sig figs for pH AFTER the decimal point only.
ex. H3O+ - 2.00 x 10E-4 (3 sig figs)
pH = 3.699 (3 sig figs AFTER decimal)
- How to calculate [OH-] concentration from [H3O+] concentration
- [OH-] = 1.00 x 10e-14/[H30+]
- How to calculate [OH-] concentration from pH?
- First get [H3O+] concentration:
10e-pH = [H3O+]
Then use equilibrium constant:
[OH-] = 1.00 x 10e-14/[H3O+]
- acid/base indicators
- --molecules that change color depending on the amount of [H3O+] present
--pH paper, paper coated with universal indicator gives approx pH.
--pH meter, electrodes which measure actual pH
- Definition of Acid (Arrhenius)
- A substance that provides [H3O+] ions when dissolved in water.
- Definition of Base (Arrhenius)
- a substance that provides [OH-] ions when dissolved in water.
- Definition of Acid (Bronsted-Lowry)
- a substance that donates an H+ ion.
- Definition of Base (Bronsted-Lowry)
- A substance that accepts an H+ ion (donates an electron.) MUST HAVE a lone pair of electrons.
- Formula for conjugate acids/bases
- B: + HA --> BH+ + :A-
B: is the original base
HA is the original acid
BH+ is the conjugate acid of B:
:A- is the conjugate base of HA
- Strong Acids
- complete dissociated
- Weak Acids
- do not dissociate completely, reactions are reversible.
- Conjugate bases of Strong acides are _______ bases.
- Conjugate bases of weak acides are ______ bases.
- The Six Strong Acids
- HCIO4 - Perchloric Acid
H2SO4 - Sulfuric Acid
NHO3 - Nitric Acid
HI - Hydroiodic Acid
HBr - Hydrobromic Acid
HCl - Hydrochloric Acid
(all other acids are considered weak)
- The Strong Bases
- Group I and II cations + OH-
(NaOH, KOH, Mg(OH)2, CA(OH)2)
all other bases are considered weak.
- Polyprotic Acids
- Acids that have more than one H+ to donate. Each subsequent dissociation will be a weaker reaction.
Ex. H2SO4 is a DIPROTIC acid
H2SO4 + H2O --> H3O+ + HSO4-
HSO4- + H2O <--> H3O+ + SO4-2
- Other important Acid/Base reactions:
- Acid + metal hydroxide = salt + water
Acid + Carbonate/bicarbonate ion --> carbonic acid --> CO2 + H2O
Acid + NH3 --> ammonium salt(aq)
- a procedure for determining the concentration of an acid or base. A known concentration of an acid/base is added to an unknown concentration of a base/acid until pH is neutral. The amount of known substance will equal the concentration of the unknown substance.
- Another word for H3O+
- Hydronium ion
- Another word for OH-
- Hydroxyl ion
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