Glossary of Chem-6
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- Chemical Bond
- A mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together.
- Ionic Bonding
- Chemical bonding that results from the electrical attraction between large numbers of cations and anions.
- Covalent Bonding
- results from the sharing of electron pairs between two atoms.
- NonPolar-Covalent Bond
- A covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally by the bonded atoms, resulting in a balanced equation.
- Bonds that have an uneven distribution of charge.
- Polar-Covalent Bonding
- A covalent bond in which the atoms have an unequal attraction for the shared electrons.
- A neutral group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds.
- Molecular Compound
- A chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules.
- Chemical Formula
- Indicates the relative numbers of atoms of each kind in a chemical compound by using atomic symbols and numerical subscripts.
- Molecular Formula
- Shows the types and numbers of atoms combined in a single molecule of a molecular compound.
- Diatomic Molecule
- A molecule containing only two atoms.
- Bond Length
- The distance between two bonded atoms at their minimum potential energy, that is, the average distance betweem two bonded atoms.
- Bond Energy
- This is the energy required to break a chemical bond and form a neutral isolated atoms.
- Octet Rule
- Chemical compounds tend to form so that each atom, by gaining, losing or sharing electrons has an octet of electrons in its highest occupied energy level.
- Electron Dot Notation
- An electron-configuration notation in which only the valence electrons of an atom of a particular element are shown, indicated by dots placed around the element's symbol.
- Unshared Pair
- a.k.a. Lone Pair. This is a pair of electons that is not involved in bonding and that belongs exclusively to one atom.
- Lewis Structures
- Formulas in which atomic symbols represent nuclei and inner-shell electrons, dot-pairs or dashes between two atomic symbols represent electron pairs in covalent bonds, and dots adjacent to only one atomic symbol represent unshared electrons.
- Structural Formula
- Indicates the kind, number, arrangement, and bonds but not the unshared pairs of the atoms in a molecule.
- Single Bond
- A covalent bond produced by the sharing of one pair of electrons between two atoms.
- Double Bond
- A covalent bond produced by the sharing of two pairs of electrons between two atoms.
- Triple Bond
- A covalent bond produced by the sharing of three pairs of electrons between two atoms.
- Multiple Bonds
- Double and triple bonds are referred to as MULTIPLE BONDS.
- Resonance Structures
- a.k.a. Resonance Hybrids. Refers to bonding in molecules or ions that cannot be correctly represented be a single Lewis Structure. This is indicated by a double arrow. <--->.
- Ionic Compound
- A composition of positive and negative ions that are combined so that the numbers of positive and negative charges are equal.
- Formula Unit
- The simplest collection of atoms from which and ionic compund's formula can be established.
- Lattice Energy
- The energy released when one mole of an ionic crystalline compound is formed from gaseous ions.
- Polyatomic Ion
- A charged group of covalently bonded atoms.
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