Glossary of Chem-6

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Chemical Bond
A mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together.
Ionic Bonding
Chemical bonding that results from the electrical attraction between large numbers of cations and anions.
Covalent Bonding
results from the sharing of electron pairs between two atoms.
NonPolar-Covalent Bond
A covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally by the bonded atoms, resulting in a balanced equation.
Bonds that have an uneven distribution of charge.
Polar-Covalent Bonding
A covalent bond in which the atoms have an unequal attraction for the shared electrons.
A neutral group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds.
Molecular Compound
A chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules.
Chemical Formula
Indicates the relative numbers of atoms of each kind in a chemical compound by using atomic symbols and numerical subscripts.
Molecular Formula
Shows the types and numbers of atoms combined in a single molecule of a molecular compound.
Diatomic Molecule
A molecule containing only two atoms.
Bond Length
The distance between two bonded atoms at their minimum potential energy, that is, the average distance betweem two bonded atoms.
Bond Energy
This is the energy required to break a chemical bond and form a neutral isolated atoms.
Octet Rule
Chemical compounds tend to form so that each atom, by gaining, losing or sharing electrons has an octet of electrons in its highest occupied energy level.
Electron Dot Notation
An electron-configuration notation in which only the valence electrons of an atom of a particular element are shown, indicated by dots placed around the element's symbol.
Unshared Pair
a.k.a. Lone Pair. This is a pair of electons that is not involved in bonding and that belongs exclusively to one atom.
Lewis Structures
Formulas in which atomic symbols represent nuclei and inner-shell electrons, dot-pairs or dashes between two atomic symbols represent electron pairs in covalent bonds, and dots adjacent to only one atomic symbol represent unshared electrons.
Structural Formula
Indicates the kind, number, arrangement, and bonds but not the unshared pairs of the atoms in a molecule.
Single Bond
A covalent bond produced by the sharing of one pair of electrons between two atoms.
Double Bond
A covalent bond produced by the sharing of two pairs of electrons between two atoms.
Triple Bond
A covalent bond produced by the sharing of three pairs of electrons between two atoms.
Multiple Bonds
Double and triple bonds are referred to as MULTIPLE BONDS.
Resonance Structures
a.k.a. Resonance Hybrids. Refers to bonding in molecules or ions that cannot be correctly represented be a single Lewis Structure. This is indicated by a double arrow. <--->.
Ionic Compound
A composition of positive and negative ions that are combined so that the numbers of positive and negative charges are equal.
Formula Unit
The simplest collection of atoms from which and ionic compund's formula can be established.
Lattice Energy
The energy released when one mole of an ionic crystalline compound is formed from gaseous ions.
Polyatomic Ion
A charged group of covalently bonded atoms.

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