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Glossary of Chapters 1-3: Introduction

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Name the only gram (-) coccus?
Neisseria
List the gram (-) enterics?
E.coli
Salmonella
Shigella
Yersinia
Klebsiella
Campylobacter
Helicobacter
Proteus
Enterobacter
Serratia
Vibrio
Pseudomonas
Bacteroides fragiles
Name the gram (-) spirochetes?
Treponema
Borrelia
Leptospira
What are the 6 classic gram (+) bugs? Categorize them?
Cocci - Streptococci, Staphylococci
Spore-producing rods - Clostridium, Bacillus
Non-spore forming rods - Corynebacterium, Listeria
List the groups of gram (-) bugs, citing examples?
Cocci (Neisseria), Spirochetes (Treponema), Rods, Pleomorphic
What are the three groups of bacteria that can't be distinguished by gram stain?
Mycobacteria (acid-fast), spirochetes (darkfield microscopy), mycoplasma (no cell wall)
What is catalase?
Bacterial enzyme that breaks down H2O2
What are microaerophilic bacteria?
Bacteria that use fermentation and have no electron transport system, but can tolerate low amounts of oxygen b/c they have superoxide dismutase (similar to catalase)
What are obligate intracellular organisms?
Organisms not capable of the metabolic pathways for ATP synthesis and thus must steal ATP from their host
List examples of bacteria that have pili and how they are used for adhesion?
Nesseria gonorrhea (cervical cell binding), E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni (bind to intestinal epithelium), Bordetella pertussis (bind to ciliated respiratory cells)
How can doctors visualize capsules?
India ink stain, Quellung reaction
Which genera of bacteria form endospores? Are they aerobic or anaerobic?
aerobic Bacillus and anaerobic Clostridium (both gram +)
Describe facultative intracellular organisms?
Bacteria that are phagocytosed by macs or neuts yet survive by inhibiting phagosome-lysosome fusion
Which bacteria release exotoxins?
All the major gram (+) genera except Listeria (which produces endotoxin)
Gram (-): Vibrio cholera, E.coli, others
Describe food poisoning?
Bacteria grow and release enterotoxin in food - diarrhea and vomiting results from ingestion of enterotoxin, but usually lasts for <24 hours. Eg. Bacillus cereus and Staph aureus
Define sepsis?
Bacteremia that causes a systemic immune response to the infection
Define septic shock? Aka?
Sepsis that results in dangerous drops in BP and organ dysfunction. Aka endotoxic shock - endotoxin is often, though not always, the precipitating trigger of the immune response that results in septic shock

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