Glossary of Chapters 1-3: Introduction
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- Name the only gram (-) coccus?
- List the gram (-) enterics?
- Name the gram (-) spirochetes?
- What are the 6 classic gram (+) bugs? Categorize them?
- Cocci - Streptococci, Staphylococci
Spore-producing rods - Clostridium, Bacillus
Non-spore forming rods - Corynebacterium, Listeria
- List the groups of gram (-) bugs, citing examples?
- Cocci (Neisseria), Spirochetes (Treponema), Rods, Pleomorphic
- What are the three groups of bacteria that can't be distinguished by gram stain?
- Mycobacteria (acid-fast), spirochetes (darkfield microscopy), mycoplasma (no cell wall)
- What is catalase?
- Bacterial enzyme that breaks down H2O2
- What are microaerophilic bacteria?
- Bacteria that use fermentation and have no electron transport system, but can tolerate low amounts of oxygen b/c they have superoxide dismutase (similar to catalase)
- What are obligate intracellular organisms?
- Organisms not capable of the metabolic pathways for ATP synthesis and thus must steal ATP from their host
- List examples of bacteria that have pili and how they are used for adhesion?
- Nesseria gonorrhea (cervical cell binding), E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni (bind to intestinal epithelium), Bordetella pertussis (bind to ciliated respiratory cells)
- How can doctors visualize capsules?
- India ink stain, Quellung reaction
- Which genera of bacteria form endospores? Are they aerobic or anaerobic?
- aerobic Bacillus and anaerobic Clostridium (both gram +)
- Describe facultative intracellular organisms?
- Bacteria that are phagocytosed by macs or neuts yet survive by inhibiting phagosome-lysosome fusion
- Which bacteria release exotoxins?
- All the major gram (+) genera except Listeria (which produces endotoxin)
Gram (-): Vibrio cholera, E.coli, others
- Describe food poisoning?
- Bacteria grow and release enterotoxin in food - diarrhea and vomiting results from ingestion of enterotoxin, but usually lasts for <24 hours. Eg. Bacillus cereus and Staph aureus
- Define sepsis?
- Bacteremia that causes a systemic immune response to the infection
- Define septic shock? Aka?
- Sepsis that results in dangerous drops in BP and organ dysfunction. Aka endotoxic shock - endotoxin is often, though not always, the precipitating trigger of the immune response that results in septic shock
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