Glossary of Chapter nine 2

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Developmental psychology
The study of how people grow, mature, and change over the life span
Cross sectional study
A method of developmental research in which people of different ages are tested and compared
Longitudinal Study
A method of develomental research in which the same people are tested at different times to track changes related to age
A fertilized egg that undergoes a two-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
The developing human organism, from two weeks to two months after conceptions
The developing human organism, from nine weeks after conception to birth
Toxic substances that can harm the embryo or fetus during prenatal development
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
A specific pattern of birth defects (stunted growth, facial deformity, and mental retardation) often found in the offspring of alcoholic mothers
Following habituation to one stimulus, the tendency for a second stimulus to arouse new interest (often used to test whether infants can discriminate between stimuli)
Grasping reflex
In infants, an automatic tendency to grasp an object that stimulates the palm
Rooting reflex
In response to contact on the cheek, an infant's tendency to turn toward the stimulus and open its mouth.
In Piaget's theory, mental representations of the world tt guide the processes of assimilation and accomodation
In piaget's theory the process of modifying existing cognitive structures in response to new information
Sensorimotor stage
Piaget's first stage of cognitive development, from birth to two years old, when infants come to know the world through their own actions
Object permanence
Developing at six to eight months, an awaremess that objects continue to exist after they disappear from view.
Separation anxiety
Among infants with object permanence, a fear reaction to the absence of their primary caretaker
Preoperations stage
Piaget's second stage of cognitive development, when two to six year olds become capable of reasoning in an intuitive, prelogical manner.
Self-centered, unable to adopt the other the perspective of another person
The concept that physical properties of an object remain the same despite superficial changes in appearance
Concrete operational Stage
Piaget's third stage of cognitive development, when children become capable of logical reasoning
Formal operational stage
Piaget's fourth stage of cognitive development, when adolescents become capable of logic and abstract thought
Among newly hatched ducks and geese, an instinctive tendency to follow the mother
Critical period
A period of time during which an organism must be exposed to a certain stimulus for proper development to occur
A deep emotional bond that an infant develops with its primary caretaker
Strange-situation Test
A parent-infant "separation and reunion" procedure that is staged in a laboratory to test the security of a child's attachment
Secure attachment
A parent-infant relationship in which the baby is secure when the parent is present, distressed by separation, and delighted by reunion.
Insecure attachment
A P/I relationship in which the baby clings to the parent, cries at separation, and reacts with anger or empathy to reunion
The period of life from puberty to adulthood, corresponding roughly to the ages of thirteen and twenty
The onset of adolescence as evidenced by rapid growth, rising levels of sex hormones, and sexual maturity
A girl's first menstrual period
moral reasoning
The way people think about and try to solve moral dilemmas
A feeling of joy for others who are happy and distress for those who are in pain
identity crisis
An adolescent's struggle to establish a personal identity, or self-concept
Life Span
the maximum age possible for members of a given species
Life expectancy
The number of years that an average member of a species is expected to live
The end of menstruation and fertility
Alzheimer's disease
A progressive brain disorder that strikes older people, causing memory loss and other symptoms
Fluid inteligence
A form of intelligence that involves the ability to reason logically and abstractly
Crystallized intelligence
A form of intelligence that reflects the accumulation of verbal skills and factual knowledge
Social Clock
A set of cultural expectations concerning the most appropriate age for men and women to leave home, marry, start a career, have children, and retire
The capacity to learn from experience and adapt successfully to one's environment
mental age
In an intelligence test, the average age of the children who achieve a certain level of performance
An American version of Binet's intelligence test that yeilds an IQ score with an average of 100.
Intelligence quotient
Originally defined as the ratio of the mental age to chronological age, it now represents a person's performance relative to same-age peers.
Wechler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
The most widely used IQ test for adults, it yeilds seperate scores for verbal and performance subtests
the procedure by which existing norms are used to interpret an individual's test score
The extent to which a test yields consistent results over time or using alternative forms
Test-retest reliablilty
The degree to which a test yeilds consistent results when readministered at a later time
Split half-reliability
The degree to which alternate forms of a test yeild consistent results
The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is designed to do
Content validity
The extent to which a test measures what it's supposed to measure
Criterion Validity
The extent to which a test can predict a concurrent or future outcome
General intelligence (g)
A broad intellectual-ability factor used to explain why performances on different intelligence test items are often correlated
Factor analysis
A statistical technique used to identify clusters of test items that correlate with one another
multiple intelligences
Gardner's theory that there are seven types of intelligence (linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal)
Someone who is highly precocious in a specific domain of endeavor
Idiot savant
Someone who is mentally retarded but is extrordinarily talented in some ways
Triarchic thoery of intelligence
Sternberg's thoery that there are three kinds of intelligence; analytic, creative, and practical
Intellectual and motivational processes that lead to novel solutions, ideas, artistic forms, or products
Divergent thinking
The ability to think flexibly and entertain a wide range of possible solutions
practical intelligence
The ablilty to size up new situations and adapt to real life demands
Project Head Start
A preschool intellectual-enrichment program for children born of poor families
Mental retardation
A diagnostic category used for people with IQ scores below 70 who have difficulty adapting to the routine demands of life
Self-fulfilling prophecy
The idea that a person's expectation can lead to its own fulfullment (as in the effect of a teacher expectations on student performance)
Stereotype threat
The tendency for positive and negative performance stereotypes about a group to influence its members when they are tested in the stereotyped domain

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