Glossary of Chapter Seven History Test
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- laws should provide greatest happiness for the greatest number of people; when did he do this?
- Jeremy Bentham; 1800
- argued that actions are right if they promote happiness and wrong if they cause pain; wanted government to improve lives of working class; wanted vote for workers and women
- John Stuart Mill
- set up a Utopian society that didn't do well
- Robert Owen
- THEY (two men) wrote The Communist Manifesto
- Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
- everything is an eternal battle between the "haves" and the "have-nots", who he called the proletariats. He said the proletariats would always come out on top.
- Karl Marx
- Urged farmers to grow turnips, which restored the soil.
- Lord Charles Townshend
- Build dikes, consolidated fields, and used fertilizer
- invented the seed drill, which deposited seeds in rows and therefore prevented the wasting of seeds
- Jethro Tull
- exchanged news of experiments in farm journals and wrote articles about his model farm near ______
- King George III or "Farmer George." His farm was near Windsor Castle.
- Developed a steam engine powered by coal to pump water out of mines; what year did he invent this engine?
- Thomas Newcomen, in 1712
- A Scottish engineer who improved on Newcomen's engine; what year?
- James Watt in 1769
- Pioneered new methods of producing iron; used coal to smelt iron and removed the impurities caused by coal; led to better-quality, less-expensive iron; what year?
- Abraham Darby in 1709
- invented the flying shuttle
- John Kay
- invented the spinning jenny that spun many threads at the same time; what year did he invent this in?
- James Hargreaves in 1764
- invented the waterframe, which used water power to speed up spinning even further
- Richard Arkwright
- developed steam-powered locomotives to pull carriages along iron rails
- George Stephenson
- used Watt's steam engine to power the Clermont up the Hudson River in New York; his steam boat traveled at 5 mph; what year did he do this in?
- Robert Fulton in 1807
- he and his followers protested against the factories and the machines by burning down numerous factories
- Ned Ludd and the Luddites
- set up the Methodist Church
- John Wesley
- main prophet of laissez-faire economics; wrote Wealth of Nations; a free market would help everyone, not just the rich
- Adam Smith
- predicted that the population would outpace the food supply; the only checks on population are war, disease, and famine
- Thomas Malthus
- when wages were high, families had more children, which meant there were more people to do jobs so wages lower and unemployment would rise
- David Ricardo
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