Glossary of Chapter Seven: The Jeffersonian Era
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- Describe the "republican mother" and what this ideal helped create.
- The "republican mother" would help train the new generation in republican values. However, people wondered how mothers could raise their children to be enlightened if they themselves were uneducated.
These concerns helped create female academies throughout the nation (usually for the daughters of affluent families). Some states, such as Mass., required that public schools serve females as well as males.
- Judith Sargent Murray
- She wrote an essay defending the right of women to education. She argued that men and women were equal in both intellect and potential. Therefore, women should have the same educational opportunities as men.
She also argued that women should have opportunities to earn their own livings, and to establish roles for themselves in society apart from their husbands and families.
Her ideas attracted relatively little support.
- Describe the decline of midwifery.
- As the medical profession became committed to the "scientific" method, it expanded its control over kinds of care that had traditionally been outside its domain.
In the early 1800s, physicians began handling deliveries themselves. This caused a narrowing of opportunities for women and a restriction of access to childbirth care for poor mothers, who could have afforded midwives but couldn't pay the physicians' higher fees.
- Deists accepted the existence of God, but they considered Him a remote being who, after having created the universe, had withdrawn from direct involvement with the human race and its sins.
- The Second Great Awakening
- A wave of revivalism in the early 1880s.
The origins of the Awakening lay in the efforts of conservative theologians to fight the spread of religious rationalism and in the efforts of churches to revitalize their organizations.
The basic message of the Second Great Awakening was that individuals must readmit God and Christ into their daily lives; they must embrace a fervent, active piety; they must reject the skeptical rationalism that threatened traditional beliefs.
The Awakening combined a more active piety with a belief in a God whose grace could be attained through faith and good works.
- Cane Ridge
- At Cane Ridge, KY, in the summer of 1801, a gropu of evangelical ministers presided over the nation's first "camp meeting"--an extraordinary revival that lasted several days and impressed all hwo saw it with its size and its fervor.
- Roles for Women in the Second Great Awakening
- Female converts far outnumbered males. This was in part due to the movement of industrial work out of the home and into the factory. This robbed women of one of their most important social roles. Religious enthusiasm provided access to a new range of activities associated with the churches--charitable societies ministering to orphans/the poor, missionary organizations, etc. Women came to play important roles in these areas.
- What affect did the Second Great Awakening have on the black community?
- Black preachers who attended revivals translated the egalitarian message that salvation was available to all into an egalitarian message for the blacks in the present world.
In VA, Gabriel Prosser devised an elaborate plan for a slave rebellion and an attack on Richmond in 1800. The plan was discovered and foiled in advance by whites, but revivalism continued to create occasional racial unrest in the south.
- Handsome Lake
- A Seneca, whose seemingly miraculous "rebirth" after years of alcoholism helped give him a special stature within his tribe.
He called for a revival of traditional Indian ways. He wanted to repudiate the individualism of white society and restore the communal quality of the Indian world.
He also encouraged Christian missionaries to be active within the tribes, and he urged Iroquois men to abandon their roles as hunters and become sedentary farmers instead. Iroquois women, who had traditionally done the farming, were to move into more domestic roles.
- The Industrial Revolution
- The emergence of modern industrialism.
- Samuel Slater
- He used the knowledge he had acquired before leaving England to build a spinning mill in RI for a merchant in 1790.
- The Cotton Gin and the Spread of Slavery
- 1793, Eli Whitney invented the cottin gin. It performed the arduous task of removing the seeds for short-staple cotton quickly and efficiently.
Using the cotton gin, a single worker could clean as much cotton in a few hours as a group of workers once needed a whole day to do.
Soon, cotton growing spread throughout the South. Within a decade, the total cotton crop increased tenfold. Slavery, which had been dwindling with the decline of tobacco, expanded and firmly fixed itself upon the South.
The large supply of domestically produced fiber served as a strong incentive to entrepeneurs in New England to develop a native textile industry.
- Whitney's Development of Interchangeable Parts
- Eli Whitney designed machine tools that could manufacture the component parts of the cotton gin to exact specifications. This way, owners of the cotton gin would have access to spare parts that would fit the machines properly.
Whitney was later commissioned by the US government to make 1000 muskets for the army using interchangeable parts.
- Importance of Interchangeable Parts
- Interchangeability was of great importance because of the great distances many people had to travel to reach towns/cities, and the relatively limited transportation systems available. With interchangeable parts, a farmer could repair a machine himself, rather than have to transport it to a machine shop.
However, the actual manufacturing of "interchangeable" parts was not nearly as precise as it should have been. Farmers and others had to do considerable fitting before the parts would work in their equipment.
- Robert Fulton's Steamboat
- Using steam power developed in England, Robert Fulton and his promoter Robert R. Livingston developed the steamboat, which was a major advance in transportation.
- The "Turnpike Era"
- 1794, a corporation constructed a toll road running from Philadelphia to Lancaster, PA. It was made with a hard-packed surface of crushed stone, which provided a good year-round surface with effective drainage.
This venture was so successful that similar turnpikes (so named from the type of tollgate frequently used) were laid out from other cities to neighboring towns.
- The Vision of Pierre L'Enfant
- The French architect L'Enfant envisioned the capital of Washington, DC as a great and majestic city. He designed the capital on a grand scale.
- Reality of Washington, DC
- For most of the 1800s, DC was a straggling, provincial village. The population increased steadily, but never rivaled that of NY or Philadelphia.
Most Congressmen viewed DC as a place to visit briefly during session of the legislature. Most lived in a cluster of simple boardinghosues in the Capitol. It wasn't unsual for a member of Congress to resign his seat in the midst of a sesion to return home if he had an opportunity to accept the more prestigious post of member of his state legislature.
- What actions did Jefferson take to limit the federal government?
- He persuaded Congress to abolish all internal taxes, leaving customs duties and the sale of W lands as the only sources of revenue for the government.
Sec. of Treasury Albert Gallatin drastically reduced government spending.
Jefferson scaled down the armed forces [both army and navy]. He argued that anything but the smallest of standing armies could menace civil liberties and civilian control of the government. However, he wasn't a pacifist. He helped establish the US Military Academy at West Point in 1802, and he began building up the navy once trouble started brewing overseas.
- Describe the conflict with the Barbary Pirates
- The Barbary states of N Africa had been demanding protection money, paid to avoid piracy, from all nations whose ships sailed the Mediterranean. The US had agreed to treaties providing for annual tribute to the Barbary states, but Jefferson was reluctant to continue paying.
1801, the pasha of Tripoli forced Jefferson's hand. When the pasha was unhappy with US response to his demands, he ordered the flagpole of the US consulate chopped down, which was a symbolic declaration of war.
Jefferson responded by building up US naval forces in the area over the next several years. In 1805, he agreed to terms by which the US ended payment of tribute to Tripoli, but paid a substantial ransom for the release of US prisoners.
- Marbury vs. Madison (1803)
- William Marbury, one of Adams's "midnight appointments" had been named a judge in DC, but his commission hadn't been delivered before Adams left office. When Jefferson took office, his Sec. of State Madison refused to deliver the commission. Marbury asked the Supreme Court to direct Madison to perform his official duty in handing over the commission.
The Court ruled that while Marbury had a right to his commission, they had no authority to order Madison to deliver it.
The Court ruled that the Judiciary Act of 1789, which gave them to power to compel executive officials to act in such matters, was unconstitutional, in that it exceeded the powers of the judiciary.
In repudiated a relatively minor power (the right to force the delivery of the commission), the Court asserted a vastly greater power (the power to judicial review--nullifying an act of Congress).
- John Marshall
- Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court from 1801 to 1835, appointed by Adams.
He established himself as the dominant figure of the Court, shaping virtually all of its impost important rulings. Through a succession of Republican Presidents, he battled to give the federal government unity and strength. In doing so, he established the judiciary as a coequal branch of the government with the executive and legislature.
- Napoleon's North American Dream
- Napoleon dreamt of restoring French power to the New World. He hoped to regain the lands west of the Mississippi, which belonged to Spain.
1800, under the secret Treaty of San Ildefonso, France regained title to Louisiana, which included almost the entire Mississippi Valley to the west of the river. Napoleon hoped this territory would become the heart of a great French empire in America.
- The Importance of New Orleans
- New Orleans was the outlet through which the produce of the fast-growing western regions of the US was shipped to the markets of the world.
- What made Jefferson worried about losing control of the New Orleans port?
- 1802, the Spanish intendant at New Orleans (who still governed New Orleans, b/c that French hadn't taken formal possession yet) had forbidden US ships from despositing their cargoe in New Orleans for transfer to oceangoing vessels.
- Napoleon's Offer
- The French Army in the New World had been destroyed by a yellow fever epidemic, and the reinforcements were stuck in a Dutch harbor over the winter. When spring came, Napoleon realized he wouldn't have the resources to secure an empire in America, because he needed them to fight the renewed European War.
When Jefferson had persuaded Congress to appropriate funds for the expansion of the army and the construction of a river fleet (hinting the US forces might descend on New Orleans and form an alliance w/ England if problems w/ France weren't solved), Napoleon offered to sell the entire Louisiana Territory to the US.
- Jefferson's Ideological Dilemma over the Louisiana Purchase
- Jefferson received the treaty asking for $15 million for the Louisiana Territory. The US would also be required to grant certain exclusive commercial privileges to France in the New Orleans port and was to incorporate the citizens of Louisiana into the Union with the same rights/privileges as other citizens.
Jefferson wasn't sure he had the authority to accept the treaty, because the Constitution said nothing about the acquisition of new territory. His advisors persuaded him that the treaty-making power would justify the purchase, and he accepted the Louisiana Purchase.
- Lewis and Clark's Expedition
- Jefferson commissioned William Clark and Meriwether Lewis to cross the continent to the Pacific, gather geographical facts, and investigate prospects for trade with the Indians.
They left in spring 1804, reached the Pacific coast in late fall 1805, and were back on the east coast in fall 1806.
- Lieutenant Zebulon Montgomery Pike
- He led an expedition from St. Louis into the upper Mississippi Valley. He later explored Colorado and the valley of the Arkansas River.
His account of western travels created an enduring and inaccurate impression among most Americans that the land between the Missouri and the Rockies was a desert that could never be cultivated.
- Essex Junto
- A group of the most extreme Federalists in Massachusetts. They concluded that the only recourse for New England after Jefferson's reelection was to secede from the Union and form a separate "northern confederacy." They believed that not only New England, but also NY and NJ, were necessary for the success of the "confederacy" as a lasting nation.
Alexander Hamilton, the leading Federalist in NY, refused to suppor the secessionist plan.
- Describe the Burr Conspiracy
- Burr accepted a Federalist proposal to become the gubernatorial candidate for NY in 1804, and there were rumors that he had agreed to support the Federalist plans for secession.
Hamilton accused Burr of treason and made numerous private remarks about Burr's despicable character.
When Burr lost the election, he blamed his defeat on Hamilton's malevolence and challenged him to a duel. Hamilton accepted the challenge, lest he be deemed a coward. Hamilton was fatally wounded in the duel.
Burr had to flee NY to avoid a murder indictment. He went to the W, where he and General James Wilkinson (governor of LA territory) planned to lead an expedition to capture Mexico. There were rumors that they wanted to separate the SW from the Union, and crate a Western empire for Burr to rule.
Many believed the rumors, including Jefferson. When Burr led a group of armed followers down the Ohio River, rumors flowed to DC that an attack on New Orleans was imminent. Jefferson ordered the arrest of Burr and his men as traitors. Burr was brought to trial, but acquited due to insufficient evidence.
The Burr Conspiracy showed that the central government was weak and with ambitious political leaders willing to circumvent normal channels to attain power, the US federal government needed to establish its legitimacy, and make the US a stable/united nation.
- Describe the Battle of Trafalgar and its aftermath.
- In 1805, at the Battle of Trafalgar, the British fleet destroyed the French navy. Because France could no longer challenge Britain at sea, Napoleon chose to pressure England economically.
The result was the Continental System. This was designed to close the European continent to British trade. Napoleon issued a series of decrees barring British ships and nuetral ships that had previously landed at British ports from landing their cargo at any European port controlled by France or its allies.
- How did Britain respond to the Continental System?
- Britain established a blockade of the European coast. The blockade required that any goods being shipped to Napoleonic Europe be carried either in British vessels or in neutral vessels stopping at British ports.
- Why did the British feel they had the right to stop and search US ships?
- Many British navy sailors deserted the British navy and joined the US merchant marine or the US navy. The British claimed the right to search US ships and reimpress deserters. They didn't claim the right the take native-born Americans, but they did claim the right to impress naturalized Americans born in Britain.
In practice, the British navy made no distinction, and impressed American-born and British-born sailors alike.
- Describe the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair.
- 1807, the US ship Chesapeake, allegedly carrying several British navy deserters, was hailed by the British ship Leopard. The US commander refused to allow the British to search the Chesapeake, so the British opened fire. The US ship was forced to surrender, and a boarding party from the Leopard dragged four men off the ship.
Jefferson and Madison tried to maintain peace. Jefferson expelled all British warships from US waters to lessen the likelihood of future incidents. He instructed his British minister to demand an end to impressment from the British government.
The British government offered compensation for those killed and wounded in the incident, and promised to return the three living captives. The British cabinet refused to renounce impressment, and instead reasserted its right to recover deserting sailors.
- The Embargo (1807)
- In an effort to prevent future incidents that might bring the nation to the brink of war, Jefferson passed the Embargo.
It forbade US ships from leaving the US for any foreign port. The law was widely evaded, but it was effective enough to create a serious depression throughout most of the nation. Merchants and shipowners of the NE (mostly Federalists) were hit the hardest.
- The Non-Intercourse Act
- Replaced the Embargo right before Madison took office.
Trade was reopened with all nations except Britain and France.
- Macon's Bill No. 2 (1810)
- Passed after the Non-Intercourse Act expired.
Reopened free commercial relations with Britain and France, but authorized the president to prohibit commerce with either one if it should continue violating neutral shipping after the other one had stopped.
- European Response to Macon's Bill No. 2
- Napoleon, in an effort to induce the US to reimpose the Embargo against Britain, announced that the US would no longer interfere with US shipping. Madison announced that an embargo against Britain only would go into effect in 1811 if Britain didn't renounce its restrictions on US shipping.
England repealed its blockade of Europe, but the repeal came too late to prevent war.
- Harrison Land Law (1800)
- Developed by Williaim Henry Harrison. Allowed white settlers to acquire farms from the public domain on much easier terms than before.
- Jefferson's Indian Policy
- Jefferson offered the Indians a choice: they could convert themselves into settled farmers and become a part of whit society, or they could migrate west of the Mississippi. Either way, they would have to give up their claims to their tribal lands in the NW.
Jefferson considered the assimilation policy a benign alternative to the continuing conflict between Indians and whites. Indians saw it as far from benign, especially given the manner in which Harrison (governor of Indiana territory) implemented it. He used bribes, trickery, and threates.
- Describe Tecumseh and the Prophet
- The Prophet experienced a mystical awakening in the process of recovering from alcoholism. He inspired a religious revival that spread through many tribes and united them. Out of their common religious experiences, the tribes began to consider joint military efforts.
The Prophet's brother, Tecumseh, emerged as the leader of the joint military effots. He understood that only through united action could the tribes hope to resist the steady advance of white civilization.
- The Tecumseh Confederacy
- Tecumseh set out to unite all the tribes of the Mississippi Valley into the Tecumseh Confederacy. Together, they would halt white expansion, recover the whole NW, and make the Ohio River the boundary between the US and Indian country.
He maintained that the US, by negotiating treaties with individual tribes, had no real title to the land. The land belonged to all the tribes; none of them could cede any of it without the consent of the others.
- Battle of Tippecanoe
- Governor Harrison camped near Prophetstown while Tecumseh was away, trying to persuade Southern tribes to join the alliance. Harrison provoked an armed conflit wit the Indians. The Indians were driven off, and their town burned.
The battle disillusioned many of the Prophet's followers, and Tecumseh returned to find the confedearcy in disarray. There were still warriors eager for combat, and they were active along the frontier, raiding white settlements and terrifying settlers by spring of 1812.
- Why was the acquisition of Florida so appealing?
- The territory was a continuing threat to whites in the S US: slaves escaped across the Florida border, and Indians in Florida launched frequent raids N.
Possession of Florida would provide residents of the SW with access to valuable ports on the Gulf of Mexico.
The desire for Florida was another motivation for war with Britain: Spain and Britain were allies, and a war with England could provide an excuse for taking Spanish territory as well as British territory.
- War Hawks
- Young pro-war congressmen
- Put-In Bay
- US forces seized control of Lake Erie, mainly through the work of Oliver Hazard Perry, who dispersed a British fleet at Put-in Bay.
The victory at Put-in Bay and the subsequent claiming of Lake Erie, allowed a more successful invasion of British Canada by way of Detroit.
- Battle of Horseshoe Bend
- Jackson's men took revenge on Indians, slaughtering women and children along with warriors. The Creek tribe ceded most of its lands to the US and retreated westward.
- Describe the British Invasion during the War of 1812.
- The British sailed up from Chesapeake Bay and landed an army that marched to Washington DC and set the government to flight. They burned several buildings, including the White House, in retaliation for the earlier US burning of the Canadian capital at York.
The invading army proceeded to Baltimore, but it was guarded by Fort McHenry. The British were forced to bombard the fort at a distance.
Francis Scott Key, a DC lawyer held captive on a British ship, wrote "The Star Spangled Banner" during this battle.
- Describe the Battle of New Orleans
- British veterans landed at New Orleans, and prepared to davnce up the Mississippi. Andrew Jackson with a cotley collection of troops, awaited the British behind earthworks.
The British advanced on the US fortifications, but were no match for the well-protected American troops.
After the US troops repulsed several waves of attackers, the British troops finally retreated, leaving nearly 2000 dead or wounded. Jackson lost only 20 men.
Later, news came that the US and Britain had signed a peace treaty weeks before the Battle of New Orleans.
- The Hartford Convention
- Federalists in New England, opposed to both the War of 1812 and the Republican government waging the war, began dreaming of a separate nation.
Dec. 1814, delegates from New England states met in Hartford to discuss grievances against the Madison administration.
Secession supporters were outnumbered by moderates. The convention's report only hinted at secession, but it reasserted the right of nullifaction and proposed seven Constitutional amendments designed to protect New England from the growing influence of the S and W.
- The Treaty of Ghent
- This treaty ended the War of 1812.
The Americans gave up their demand for a British renunciation of impressment and for the cession of Canada to the US. The British abandoned their call for creation of an Indian buffer state in the NW and made other, minor territorial concessions.
- Rush-Bagot Treaty
- Provided for mutual disarmament on the Great Lakes. Because of this, the Canadian-American border became the longest "unguarded frontier" in the world.
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