Glossary of Chapter Nine:Development (Human Geography)

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What is development?
the process of improving the material conditions of people through the diffusion of knowledge and technology
What is a LDC?
Less Developed country
What are countries constantly trying to do with development?
Maintain and Achieve
What distinguishes a country's level of development?
Economic, Social, and Demographic conditions
What is HDI?
Human Development Index
Who created it and in what year?
The U.N. created it in 1990.
What does it recognize?
That a country's level of development is a function of economic, social, and demographic factors
What goes into the calculation of HDI? Who has the highest, lowest HDI's?
The calculation depends on GDP per capita (from economic), literacy rate and amount of education (from social), and life expectancy (from demographic). Canada has the highest with .932. Sierre Leone has the lowest with .254.
What regions typically have the highest and the lowest HDI's?
Usually core regions have the highest HDI's. The highest reanking countries are generally in WEstern Europe, though Japan is one of the excpetions. Perifory regions have the lowest, mostly Sub-Sahara Africa.
What is uneven development?
The expanding differences between the wealthy and the poor regions in the world.
What are the three types of jobs?
1. primary- agricultural (uses natural reasources)
2. secondary- manufacturing (processes the raw materials)
3.tertiary- services
-Quaternary:jobd in business
-Quinary: jabd in health education, reasearch, etc.
(Last two are not used really that much anymore)
What is productivity and how is it measured?
the value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it. Can be measured by the value added per worker.
What is value added?
in manufacutring, the grosss value of the product minus the cost of raw materials.
What is the typical relationship between raw materials and development?
The amount of raw materials that a country has can show the likelyness of development. Development needs access to raw materials that can be made into other things.
What is the ratio of consumer goods to people in a lot of the MDC's?
What do the MDC's usually spend their money on?
use money for schools, hosptials, and welfare services.
What is the relationship between development and education?
The more developed, the greater in both quanity, and quality of the education
What is the average amount of school for both MDC's and LDC's? What about education for girls in both (what are the statistics)?
MDC-10 year average
-99/100 women go to high schools
LDC-a couple of years
-60/100 women go to high school
What area has the worst education of women?
Middle East and South Asia
What is literacy rate?
the percentage of a country's people who can read and write.
What helps people in MDC's live longer?
health care
What is the infant mortality rate of developing countries?What about devloped coutries?
90% live
10% die

99% live in MDC's?
What are the NIRs for MDCs and LDCs?
MDC- less than 1% in many countries
LDC- more than 2% average
Which level of development has higher crude birth rates? (statistics)
LDC-annual birthrate exceeds 40/100
MDC-15% (women chose to have less babies)
What are the nine major regions according to development?
Western Europe
Eastern Europe
East Asia
South Asia
Southeast Asia
Middle East
Sub-Saharan Africa
Who are the two other regions that are much smaller?
South Pacific
What is the north-south split?
the division of the worls between more and less developed regions along the 30 N latitude.
What is less diverse than other regions in Anglo-American? What are some facts about it?
Language and religion
-95% of the people are Christian
-reativly successful
-turcuary is the main job group (entertainment largest in the world)
-largest consumers
-farming is very efficient
-some divercity problems
What is the language group that most people speak in the Western Europe region?
What conflicts have risen in Western Europe and affected it?
The two world wars.
Who has the richest market of the regions?
Western Europe
What has the euro done for the Western European Region?
potenially the world's largest and richest market.
What is one problem that Western Europe has to overcome?
Migration from less developed countries
What has also cause conflict in the Western Eurpean region?
Religion: Catholic vs. Protestant
What is one thing that Weatern Europe has to import?
What is the main problem with Eastern Europe?
It is the only region where the HDI has dramatically dropped
What is Eastern Europe healing from? What are some problems created by this?
-ethnic divaersity
-made a 5 year plan where areas speciallized in certain things
Who was the other superpower in the 1950's and 60's?
The U.S.S.R. was the othe superpower. U.S. relized this when sputmic went to space. Pushed a boost in education in the U.S.
What is suprising about Japan considering its sucess?
It has a highly unfavorable ratio of people to reasources.
What helped Japan become more developed?
The people have some of the hardest work ethics in the world.
What helps the South Pacific's economy?
What are the problems and the pluses in East Asia
China is the largest area
China has potencially the largest economy in the world
largely farming society
they were once communist
What is the most devloped country in Latin America?
Mexico because of its proximity to the U.S.
What does the economy lack in Latin America?
A middle class
What are the problems in Southeast Asia?
Indonisa has the highest population in the region
they are war torn
natural disasters have servere affects
can not grow many things in the tropicla climate

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