Glossary of Chapter 9 The Thirteen Colonies Rebel
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- What was the PROCLAMATION OF 1763?
- Passed by British Parliament to put and END to WARS with INDIANS. NO SETTLING West of Appalachia - land belonged to INDIANS.
- Why did the Proclamation of 1763 anger colonists?
- LAND = STATUS
Old land wore out from farming
- What was the QUARTERING ACT passed by British in 1765?
- Colonists had to HOUSE BRITISH SOLDIERS (under General Gage)in NY.
- Why did England decide to tax the colonies?
- England was BROKE from the WAR with FRANCE. NEEDED MONEY so taxed imports to America (sugar, coffee, wine, etc.) under the SUGAR ACT OF 1764.
- What was the STAMP ACT of 1765?
- Colonists had to BUY STAMPED PAPER for EVERYTHING (newspapers, bills, playing cards)
- Why did the Stamp Act ENRAGE COLONISTS?
- NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION!!!!!!! The colonists had no representatives in Parliament so felt England had no right to tax them.
- What was the STAMP ACT CONGRESS?
- Colonists sent delegates to draw up a PETITION PROTESTING THE STAMP ACT: only COLONIAL ASSEMBLIES (NOT Parliament) could TAX COLONISTS.
- What were the SONS OF LIBERTY?
- One of the other ways colonists protested Stamp Act - a SECRET SOCIETY staged PROTESTS. (Daughters of Liberty, too)
- What was the DECLARATORY ACT?
- Parliament passed in 1766 (when it REPEALED the STAMP ACT). It claimed Britain had the RIGHT TO RULE & TAX COLONISTS in ALL cases.
- What were the TOWNSHEND ACTS?
- Passed in 1767 (by British Finance Minister Townshend) to "TAX COLONIES W/O OFFENSE". SUSPENDED NY ASSEMBLY until colonies agreed to resume HOUSING SOLDIERS. Colonists had to pay DUTIES on IMPORTS from England. MONEY PAID SOLDIERS.
- What were WRITS OF ASSISTANCE?
- British DOCUMENTS to ENFORCE TOWNSHEND ACTS & STOP SMUGGLING. Allowed British to SEARCH ANY BUILDING for any reason.
- Why did COLONIAL PROTESTS break out as soon as the Townshend Acts were passed?
- 1. NY pissed that their ASSEMBLY SUSPENDED.
2. Colonists knew DUTIES = TAXES (just another word).
3. Colonists still believed in "THE RIGHTS OF ENGLISHMEN."
- Who was JAMES OTIS?
- A colonist who challenged the court's decision that the Townshend Acts were legal because CATCHING SMUGGLERS was MORE IMPORTANT than PROTECTING THE INDIVIDUAL. He said writs were AGAINST COMMON LAW & NATURAL LAW (all beings equal and independent, etc.)
- What was the GASPEE INCIDENT?
- June 9, 1172 British Ship Gaspee RAN AGROUND in RI. Colonists put the CREW ASHORE and BURNED THE SHIP. Nobody would identified who did it.
- What were some of the TOOLS OF PROTEST used by the colonists whose basic notions of liberty had been offended?
- CUTTING TRADE w/ ENGLAND: BOYCOTTS of British goods - shop keepers didn't sell imported goods - and
SPINNING BEES - Daughters of Liberty made own cloth and drank herbal teas to promote American made goods.
- What was the BOSTON MASSACRE?
- 1, British sent 1000 TROOPS to put down RIOT caused when British seized JOHN HANCOCK'S SHIP, LIBERTY (it was carrying smugglied wine from Portugal).
2. Redcoats TOOK JOBS from colonists causing tensions.
3. Youths and dockworkers THREW SNOWBALLS in front of the Customs House, bringing the SOLDIERS.
4. Soldiers FIRED ON THE CROWD, KILLING FIVE, including CRISPUS ATTUCKS.
- Who defended the five soldiers in court and why?
- JOHN ADAMS & JOSIAH QUINCY JR because the Law should be "deaf to the clamors of hte populace." The soldiers were acquitted.
- What was the TEA ACT of 1773?
- After the Boston Massacre, Parliament REPEALED the TOWNSHEND ACTS and left just the tax on tea to show it STILL COULD TAX the colonies. Gave control of tea trade to BRITISH EAST INDIA CO. HURT Colonial SHIPPERS & MERCHANTS.
- What was the COMMITTEE OF CORRESPONDENCE?
- SAM ADAMS organized it to keep up COMMUNICATION BETWEEN LEADERS of towns on matters of LIBERTY.
- What was the BOSTON TEA PARTY?
- Through the Committees of Correspondence, colonists ORGANIZED AGAINST TEA ACT. In Boston, DUMPED 342 chests of TEA into BOSTON HARBOR.
- What were the INTOLERABLE ACTS?
- Passed by Parliament to PUNISH colonist for the TEA PARTY:
1. BOSTON'S PORT CLOSED til tea paid for;
2. MA GOVERNMENT RESTRICTED - could only meet w/ Governor's permission/no Committees of Correspondence;
3. BRITISH TROOPS COULD STAY ANYWHERE;
4. British Colonel GAGE appointed GOVERNOR of MA.
- What was the CONTINENTAL CONGRESS?
- Delegates from the COMMITTEES OF CORRESPONDENCE met in PHILADELPHIA to discuss the Intolerable Acts. BAN ON TRADE w/Britain until Acts repealed. Illegal meeting showed colonists' DESIRE FOR INDEPENDENCE.
- What was JOHN HANCOCK'S RESPONSE when Britain refused to back down and repeal the Acts?
- His COMMITTEE OF SAFETY called on the MINUTEMEN to get ready for war. PATRICK HENRY did the same in VIRGINIA.
- What was PAUL REVERE warning the Patriots about during his famous ride?
- The BRITISH were coming to DESTROY THE MINUTEMEN'S SUPPLY OF WEAPONS in Concord.
- Where did the MINUTEMEN fight the BRITISH on April 19, 1775?
- In LEXINGTON and CONCORD. The British got past them at Lexington but they forced the Brits to retreat at OLD NORTH BRIDGE in Concord.
- Why is APRIL 19, 1775 ("Patriots' Day - not the Boston Marathon!) considered the BEGINNING OF THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR?
- The colonists were FORCED TO CHOOSE SIDES - TORY OR PATRIOT.
- What happened at FORT TICONDEROGA in New York?
- BENEDICT ARNOLD'S GREEN MOUNTAIN BOYS raided the fort for CANONS & GUNS.
- What did the colonists decide at the 2ND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS in May, 1775?
- To set up a CONTINENTAL ARMY under GENERAL GEORGE WASHINGTON.
- What was the BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL?
- PATRIOTS HELD THE HILL;
22,000 REDCOATS tried to re-take the hill;
Patriots TURNED THEM BACK TWICE before losing;
BIG VICTORY for PATRIOTS anyway - killed 1000 Brits vs. 400 Patriots.
- What was the OLIVE BRANCH PETITION?
- CONTINENTAL CONGRESS sent it to King George, BLAMING PARLIAMENT for the problems and asking the KING TO TAKE THEIR SIDE. (George refused and send 10,000 German soldiers instead!)
- What happened on MARCH, 1776 that we celebrate as "Evacuation Day" (actually most Bostonians celebrate St. Patrick's Day then anyway...)
- PATRIOTS up on DORCHESTER HEIGHTS above the Boston Harbor, BOMBARDED BRITISH SHIPS and forced the BRITISH OUT OF BOSTON.
- What effect did THOMAS PAINE'S pamphlet COMMON SENSE have on the colonists?
- It forcfully argued for INDEPENDENCE in a way that convinced even THOSE WHO WERE AFRAID to separate.
- What RESOLUTIONS did Virginian RICHRD HENRY LEE present at the 2nd Continental Congress?
- 1. 13 colonies BECOME STATES;
2. Colonies should JOIN TOGETHER in a CONFEDERATION.
- Who was responsible for the DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE?
- CONTINENTAL CONGRESS voted to write it and THOMAS JEFFERSON did the writing, finishing it in two weeks on JULY 4TH, 1776.
- What is the CORE IDEA of the Declaration of Independence?
- People (except slaves) have certain RIGHTS that the GOVERNMENT CANNOT TAKE AWAY under ANY circumstances (like the right to PRIVACY, which is the right we defend when we defend abortion rights).
- Why didn't Thomas Jefferson include slaves as people with rights when he drafted the Declaration of Independence?
- He wanted to but slave owners wouldn't vote for the declaration and they thought was more important to get it passed.
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