Glossary of Chapter 9 Earth in Space and Beyond

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When a of rock is large enough to survive its fiery decent through the atmosphere, the object that reaches the ground is called a ________.
What is a galaxy?
A system of billions of stars.
What are the three types of galaxies?
Spiral Galaxies which are shaped like pinwheels, elliptical galaxies which look like bob with no spirals and can be circular or flattened and irregular galaxies with no definate shape.
What is a change of light or sound wavelengths as a source moves toward or away from the observer?
The Doppler Effect
What are Meteors?
"Shooting Stars" which are streaks of light caused by meteorids passing through Earth's atmosphere at high speeds
What is a light year?
The distance that light travels in one year.
What galaxy do we live in, what kind of galaxy is it, and where is the sun located.
The Milky Way, a spiral galaxie and the sun is located about 10,000 light yrs away from the center.
What are regions on the surface of the sun that consist of cooler gases than those surrounding it?
The sun is (larger/smaller/average) in diameter, density and mass compared to other stars.
What is the Sun primarily composed of?
hydrogen and helium
What did Galileo use sunspots to measure?
the speed of rotation for the Sun to be about 4 weeks
As a planet moves toward the Sun, its _______ ________ increases.
orbital velocity
About how long ago and how did the solar system form?
about 5 billion years ago from a giant cloud of gas and debris.`
The greater the latitude, the ________ the change in direction per hour of the Foucault Pendulum.
What are light waves speeding away toward us and will be squeezed into shorter wavelengths called?
Which type of panets are most similar to Earth: Terrestrial or jovian?
What are the characteristics of terrestrial planets?
are small (no larger then earth), have low mass and high densities compared to jovian planets, heavy elements, less significant atmosphere, which suggests they are solid
What is a small dense white-hot star, about the size of a planet?
A white dwarf
What is when pressure squeezes electrons into atomic nuclei to produce neutrons?
a neutron star
What are the four terrestrial plantets?
Mercury, Mars, Earth and Venus
What are the four jovian planets?
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
What are the characteristics of jovian plantets?
they have low densities, composed primarily of gases, dominated by vast swarlinf cloud formations
What is astronomy?
It is the study of the universe, the stars, planets and all other objects in space.
What is the Big Bang theory?
The theory that a termendous explosion of an extreemly dense mass about 15 to 20 billion years ago, that produced the expanding universe that exists today.
What is a black hole?
a region od black surrounded by stars
What are fragments of rocks or ice traveling in space?
What is the outer portion of a neutron star explodes producing the brightest known object in space.
A supernova
What are huge masses of dust and gas (hydrogen) that condense in space?
T or F: Earth is the only planet that has large amounts of water at its surface with temperature and pressure balance enough to allow water to exist in its three forms: ice, liquid, and vapor.
What determines whether substances are solids, liquids, or gases?
What are light waves of an object speeding away through space and STRETCHing into longer wavelenghts?
What is the heliocentric model?
the sun centered model first introduced by Coprenicus
What is when hydrogen is fused into helium and energy is released?
nuclear fusion
T or F: Earth and Venus today are the only planets in our solar system with the type of atmosphere to support life as we know it.
False: Earth is the only panet that has the type of atmosphere to support life as we know it.
What are red giants?
The temperature of the star's expanded surface cools and its gases glow with a reddish hue..
What is the apparent path of the sun against the background stars called?
What is retrograde motion of the planets explained by?
the idea that the further a planet is from the Sunm the slower its orbital velocity
What is the result of a collision of a large meteorite with Earth's surface.
impact crater
The smaller the eccentricity, the _______ circular the orbit
What is the imaginary sphere that encircles earth?
celestial sphere
T or F: With little or no atmosphere, there is alot of weathering on Mercury, Mars and the Moon
Faulse there is little or no weathering
What is Hubble's Law?
The relationship between the distance and speeds of galaxies and really means that the Universe is expanding.
What is one of the few stars that are bigger and brighter than the typical red giants?
What is the region surrounding the Sun in which the temperatures of a planet are suited to support life?
The Ecosphere
What are stars located between the northern horizon and Polaris that never set and move in counterclockwise circles called?
circumpolar stars
What is a star's spectra?
Colors produced when wavelenghts of light are seperated
What is the point on the celestial sphere that is directly above an observer's position on Earth's surface?
What are chunks of ice?
Where do astronomers beleive that asteroids came from?
The formation of the solar system, or from comets that have broken apart.
What is the distance in degrees measured clockwise from due north position of a celestial object?
What is a rock with an irregular shape that orbits the sun?
an Asteroid
When a comet is far from the sun, it consits primarily of _______________.
dust and ice (frozen ammonia, methane, and water).
What produces the long flowing tail behind a comet?
When conets with highly elongated orbits come close to the Sun, and the Sun's radiation vaporizes some if the some of the comets ice.
June 21st is called the ___________________, and the earth is tilted _______ degrees.
Summer Solstice, 23 1/2
The tendancy of matter moving across Earth's surface to be deflected from a straight-line path is called _________.
Coriolis effect
What is the material given off from a rapidly spining neutron star?

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