Glossary of Chapter 8: Neisseria
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- What shape are Neisseria?
- Small kidney-bean diplococci - looks like a small donut
- What are the important virulence factors of the meningococcus?
- Polysaccharide capsule, endotoxin (LPS), IgA1 protease
- What are the high risk groups for Neisseria meningitides infection?
- - Infants aged 6 months to 2 years
- army recruits / dorm students
- What are the manifestations of meningococcal disease? What is the classic 'clue' to an invasive meningococcal infection?
- - Meningococcemia: spiking fevers, arthralgia, and muscle pains
- fulminant meningococcemia (Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome) septic shock
- What is the classic medium for culturing Neisseria?
- Thayer-Martin VCN media
- Prompt treatment with what is required at the first indication of disseminated meningococcemia?
- Penicillin G or ceftriaxone
- What are the two most common sexually transmitted diseases?
- Describe gonococcal disease in women?
- Urethritis - often asymptomatic, with minimal discharge. Infection of the cervix, which becomes reddened with a purulent exudate. Can progress to PID.
- What are the complications of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?
- Sterility, ectopic pregnancy, abscesses, peritonitis, peri-hepatitis (infection of the capsule that surrounds the liver).
- What are the manifestations of gonococcal bacteremia?
- Fever, joint pains, skin lesions. More rare - pericarditis, endocarditis, and meningitis.
- What is the most common kind of septic arthritis in young, sexually active individuals?
- Gonococcal arthritis
- What is ophthalmia neonatorum and how is it treated?
- Transmission of N. gonorrhoeae to a neonate during delivery, resulting in an eye infection. Treat with erythromycin (which also covers Chlamydia)
- If a patient is diagnosed with Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection, what is the treatment standard and why?
- Ceftriaxonde (3rd gen cephalosporin), which will also treat syphilis. At the same time, treat with doxycycline or azithromycin for Chlamydia trachomatic (a beta-lactam resistant bug that concurrently infects 50% of gonorrhea patients)
- Branhamella catarrhalis causes disease of which organ tract?
- Respiratory tract, otitis media, sinusisits, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
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