Glossary of Chapter 7: Study of the Atmosphere

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what is radioactive decay?
The natural decay of unstable atoms
What is the cause of ocean currents, winds, and very probably "continental drift" ?
What is conductionmust effective in?
What is kinetic energy?
What is the electomagnetic spectrum?
the entire range of electromagnetic wavelenghts
What is potential energy?
stored energy
What is solar energy?
energy form the sun
What is radiation?
The transfer of electromagnetic energy through space in the form of invisible transverse waves
What is the principle of conservation of energy?
energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but can be transformed from one type to another without any loss of energy within a closed system
Which forms is most of the energy from the sun in?
invisible waves, especially ultraviolet and infrared waves.
The ________ the particles are moving, the higher the temp
How was the atmosphere mostly created?
The process of volcanic outgassing
What are the four ways electromagnetic energy can interact with a material?
refracted(bent), reflected, scattered(refracted, and reflected) and absorbed(taken in)
What is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in the sample being measured?
All electromagnetic energy travels through space at the same rate or _________.
The speed of light
The rate of decay is _______ by temp changes, pressure or any other enviornmental circumstances.
The shorter the wavelength, the ________ the frequency.
What are the three methods of energy transfer?
convection, conduction, and radiation.
What is Conduction?
The transfer of heat energy by the collision of atoms with adjoining atoms, or molecules with asjoining molecules.
What are the two main sources of energy on Earth?
The sun, and radioactive decay.
What are the parts of waves, and where are they located?
the crest(the top of the wave) the trough(the bottom of the wave) the amplitude (the height of the wave)
What is a closed energy system?
One in which no energy from outside the system can get in and no energy from the inside can get out
What is electromagnetic energy?
The energy that has the properties of transverse waves.
What is absolute zero?
It is considered to be the lowest possible temperature, the temperature at which all molecular motion ceases.
What is energy?
The ability to do work
what are atmospheric (weather) variables?
Variables that describe weather changes such as temperature, air pressure, wind and atmospheric transparency.
What is convection?
The transfer of heat energy by movements of liquids and gases, and is caused by differances in density
What is weather?
the state or condition of the atmosphere at a particular location for a short period of time.
What is One Calorie defined as?
the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of liquid water by one degree celsius.
The higher spacific heat of a substance, the ____ the amount of heat needed to raise its temperature.
What is the total kinetic energy of the particles in a smaple of matter?
heat energy
Heat always flows from a region of _______ energy to a region of ______ energy
higher, lower
What is the study of weather?
What is the doppler effect?
the apparent change in wave frequency as an energy source moves toward or away from the observer.
What is the circulation of a gas or a liquid resulting from this heat transfer process?
convection current
What is the wave length of a transverse wave?
the distance between two successive crests or troughs or between corresponding points on successive cycles.

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