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Glossary of Chapter 6 vocabulary Earth Science

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A weak spot in the crust where magma has come to the surface.
volcano
The molten mixture of rock-forming substances, gases, and water that makes up part of Earth’s mantle.
magma
Magma that reaches the surface; also the rock formed when liquid lava hardens.
lava
A major belt of volcanoes that rims the Pacific Ocean.
Ring of Fire
A string of islands formed by the volcanoes along a deep ocean trench.
island arc
An area where magma from deep within the mantle melts through the crust above it.
hot spot
The pocket beneath a volcano where magma collects.
magma chamber
A long tube through which magma moves from the magma chamber to Earth’s surface.
pipe
The opening through which molten rock and gas leave a volcano.
vent
The area covered by lava as it pours out of a volcano’s vent.
lava flow
A bowl-shaped area that forms around a volcano’s central opening.
crater
A material that is formed from the elements oxygen and silicon; silica is found in magma.
silica
A hot, fast-moving type of lava that hardens to form smooth, ropelike coils.
pahoehoe
A slow-moving type of lava that hardens to form rough chunks; cooler than pahoehoe.
aa
The expulsion of ash, cinders, bombs, and gases during an explosive volcanic eruption.
pyroclastic flow
A volcano that is erupting or has shown signs of erupting in the near future.
active
A volcano that does not show signs of erupting in the near future.
dormant
A volcano that is unlikely to erupt again
extinct
A pool formed by groundwater that has risen to the surface after being heated by a nearby body of magma.
hot spring
A type of hot spring that builds up pressure underground and erupts at regular interval as a fountain of water and steam.
geyser
Heat energy in Earth’s interior from water or steam that has been heated by magma.
geothermal energy
A wide, gently sloping mountain made of layers of lava and formed by quiet eruptions.
shield volcano
A steep, cone-shaped hill or mountain made of volcanic ash, cinders, and bombs piled up around a volcano’s opening.
cinder cone
A tall, cone-shaped mountain in which layers of lava alternate with layers of ash and other volcanic materials.
composite volcano
The large hole at the top of a volcano formed when the roof of a volcano’s magma chamber collapses.
caldera
A deposit of hardened magma in a volcano’s pipe.
volcanic neck
A slab of volcanic rock formed when magma forces itself across rock layers.
dike
A slab of volcanic rock formed when magma squeezes between layers of rock.
sill
A mass of rock formed when a large body of magma cooled inside the crust.
batholith

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