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Glossary of Chapter 4 - The Cell in Action

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The movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density.
Diffusion
The diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane.
Osmosis
The movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell.
Passive Transport
The movement of substances across the cell membrane that requires the cell to use energy.
Active Transport
The process by which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell.
Endocytosis
The process in which a cell releases a particle by enclosing the particle in a vesicle that then moves to the cell surface and fuses with the cell membrane.
Exocytosis
The process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to make food.
Photosynthesis
The process by which cells use oxygen to produce energy from food.
Cellular Respiration
The breakdown of food without the use of oxygen.
Fermentation
The life cycle of a cell.
Cell Cycle
In a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein; in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of DNA.
Chromosome
Chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes and the same structure.
Homologous Chromosomes
In Eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes.
Mitosis
The division of the cytoplasm of a cell.
Cytokinesis

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