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Glossary of Chapter 4 - Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life

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Isomers
compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structures and hence different properties
Structural Isomers
differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms
Geometric Isomers
of a molecule have all the same covalent partnerships, but they differ in their spatial arrangements
Enantiomers
Molecules that are mirror images of each other
Hydroxyl Group
a hydrogen atom is bonded to an oxygen atom, which in turn is bonded to the carbon skeleton of the organic molecule; organic compounds containing hydroxyl groups are called alcohols
Carbonyl Group
consists of a carbon atom joined to an oxygen atom by a double bond
Aldehyde
an organic compound in which a carbonyl group is attached to one end of a carbon skeleton
Ketone
an organic compound in which the carbonyl group is attached to the skeleton somewhere other than the end
Carboxyl Group
an organic molecule in which an oxygen atom is double-bonded to a carbon atom that is also bonded to a hydroxyl group; compounds containing carboxyl groups are known as Carboxylic acids
Amino Groups
compounds that consist of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and to the carbon skeleton; organic compounds with amino groups are called amines
Sulfhydryl Group
the functional group that consists of a sulfur atom bonded to an atom of hydrogen; organic compounds containing an (–SH) are called thiols
Phosphate Groups
organic compounds that contain a phosphate ion attached to a carbon skeleton by one of its oxygens

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