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Glossary of Chapter 3 SAT Chemistry Terms

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ionic bond
formed between metal and nonmetal. Make a crystal lattice, an ionic solid.
complete transfer of electron

high melting point,
can conduct electric currents in molten state

EN differ by 1.7 or more
nonpolar covalent bond
between nonmetal and nonmetal. equal sharing of electrons and are usually gases, liquids

low boiling point
melt easily
don't conduct electric currents

electronegativity differ between 0 and .5
polar covalent bond
nonmetal and nonmetal, unequal sharing of electrons.

electronegativity differ between .4-1.7
metallic bonding
metal and metal. electrons move in a sea of free electrons
firm bonding
high melting points
great strength and great conductors of electricity
van der Waals forces
happens with noble gases, electron clouds shift to make ellipsoid with slight + and slight - end. Spreads to other atoms (london dispersion)
dipole-dipole attraction
force of attraction between polar molecules. low force.

positive pole of one molecule attracts negative pole of other molecule
a van der Waal
London Force
the weakest of all the electrical forces.
a van der Waals force
have low intermolecular forces
occurs when a nonpolar molecule becomes polar
examples are iodine crystals and moth balls
hydrogen bonding
a proton or hydrogen nucleus is bonded to a highly electronegative atom
boiling point is high
examples water and HF
What is the boiling point of water?
100 degrees C.
VESPR theory
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion. aka hybridization theory. Like charges arrange themselves to eliminate repulsions between each other.
lone pairs occupy space around the central atom
Linear Arrangement
repulsion of two electron pairs

example: BeF2
Trigonal-Planar Arrangement
repulsion of 3 electron pairs, form an equilateral triangle

BF3
Tetrahedral
Repulsion of 4 electron pairs

example CH4
Octahedral
repulsion of 6 electron pairs

example SF6
hybridization
this means that 2 or more atomic obitals (usually p and d) can be mixed to form two or more new hybrid atomic orbitals
pyramidal arrangement
3 bonds
1 unused electron pair
example is NH3
Angular Arrangement
2 Bonds
2 unused electron pairs
Example = H2O
Sigma Bond
Bond between S orbitals, or S and P orbitals
Pi Bond
When two P orbitals share electrons in a covalent bond

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