Glossary of Chapter 3 Minerals and Rocks

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What is a compound?
Tow or more elements that are chemically combined.
What are the six key physical properties of a mineral?
color, cleavage, fracture, streak, luster, and hardness.
What is a carbonate?
A compound made of one carbon atom and three oxygen atoms, an example is calcite.
What are intrusive rocks?
igneous rocks that for below the surface
The longer the period of time the magma or lava has to cool and solidify, the ______ the crystals that form.
What are extrusive rocks?
Igneous rocks that formed on the surface and are later baried later
What is molten rock beneath Earth's surface is called _____.
The different structural arrangments and bonding account for differences in the _________ ________ of minerals.
physical properties
What is an iron oxide?
it combines the mineral iron with oxygen, an example is magnitite.
What is the hardness of a mineral? And what is the scale it is measured on?
The resistance of being scratched, Moh's Scale of hardness.
What do igneous rocks form because of?
The solidification of molten rock material.
What Moh's scale of hardness from softest to hardest?
talc, gypsum, calcite, fluorite, apatite, feldspar, quartz, topez, corundum, and diamond.
how are minerals grouped?
According to their chemical composition.
What is tetrahedron?
It is a four sided solid each side being a triange.
What is cleavage?
The tendancy of a mineral to split along one or more,. flat surfaces or planes.
What is a sulfide?
iron combines with sulfer, an example is pyrite (fools gold)
What do metamorphic rocks form because of?
The result of the recrystillization of existing rock material.
How do crystals oringinate?
Through evaportation, as well as the cooling and solidification of magma or the rearrangment of atoms from high temp and pressure.
What are the three occurances where minerals are found in rocks?
In loose cavities, attached to a wall of rock surrounding a cavity, or embedded in the rock.
What do sedimentary rocks form because of?
A result of the compaction and cementation of sediments, and are usually eroded and deposited by the action of rivers, glaciers and wind.
Where are most sediementary rocks deposited?
In large bodies of water and tend to be rounded.
What do sedimentary rocks tend to look like?
a layered look, with layers showing ripple marks, cross bedding, and fossil shells indicate that these layers were formed from sediment deposited in a shallow sea
What are the physical properties of a mineral largly due to?
The internal arrangement of atoms.
What is when the pressure created by water and overlying sediments can sometimes be great enough to force particles of sediment close together, and drive out any water present and compact the sediemts into a rock?
Where are metamorphic rocks often found exposed?
mountain areas, where the covering rocks had been eroded away
What is a mineral?
A mineral is a naturally occuring, inorganic, solid, that has a definite chemical composition and molecular structure.
What is the process in which rocks undergo change without true melting?
What is energy resources formed from the plants and remains of plants and animals that lived long ago.
Fossil Fuels
What is fracture?
Minerals that dont show cleavage, and break, usually unevenly and roughly.
Why is color not the most reliable characteristic of a mineral?
because many different minerals exibit the same color and many minerals are found in a variety of colors.
What is contact metamorphism?
it occurs when molten rock comes in contact with surrounding rocks.
What occurs when large areas of rock are under intence heat and pressure?
regional metamorphism
What are the kinds of non matallic luster?
pearly, glassly, earthy, dull, greasy, etc.
What is streak?
Streak is the color of the mineral in its powder form.
What are the four groups of compounds?
silicates, native elements, carbonates,iron oxides and sulfides.
What is a silicate?
A combination of silicon and oxygen with other elements, are the largest group of rock forming minerals and include the minerals quartz, feldspar, mica, etc.
What is crystalline?
The pattern of atoms in a mineral
What is a crystal?
A mineral with geometric shapes and smooth flat surfaces called faces.

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