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Glossary of Chapter 3 - The Body in Motion from Bowden and Bowden's An Illustrated Atlas of

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Flexion
motion that decreases the angle between the bones in a joint

ex. bending elbow
- Opp. of extension
Extension
motion that increases the angle between bones in a joint

ex. straightening elbow
- Opp. of flexion
Hyperextension
motion that goes beyond its normal limits

ex. "hitchhiker's thumb"
Abduction
motion in which a body part is moved away from the midline

ex. raising arm
- Opp. of adduction
Adduction
motion in which a body part is moved toward the midline

ex. lowering arm
- Opp. of abduction
Rotation
motion is which a bone turns around its own longitudinal axis

ex. medial and lateral rotation of the arm and leg
Supination
special rotational movement of the forearm that causes the palm of the hand to face anterior
- Opp. of pronation
Pronation
special rotational movement of the forearm that causes the palm of the hand to face posterior
- Opp. of supination
Circumduction
movement of the limbs describes a cone in space; motion that occurs at the "ball and socket" joints at the shoulder and the hip
Plantar flexion
downward movement of the foot and toes at the ankle resulting in the foot and toes pointing toward the floor
- Opp. of dorsiflexion
Dorsiflexion
upward movement of the foot and toes at the ankle resulting in the toes and foot projecting away from the floor
- Opp. of plantar flexion
Opposition
movement of the thumb to approach or touch one or more of the fingertips
- Opp. of reposition
Reposition
movement of the thumb returning to a parallel position with the fingers
- Opp. of opposition
Inversion
special movement of the foot where the sole of the foot turns inward toward the median line
- Opp. of eversion
Eversion
special movement of the foot where the sole of the foot turns outward or away from the median line
- Opp. of inversion
Protraction
movement of a bone anteriorly in a transverse plane

ex. moving jaw forward
- Opp. of retraction
Retraction
movement posteriorly along a transverse plane

ex. moving jaw backward
- Opp. of protraction
Elevation
upward movement of a bone vertically

ex. closing mouth
- Opp. of depression
Depression
downward movement of a bone vertically

ex. opening mouth
- Opp. of elevation

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